Investigation of the contribution of virtual reality to architectural education
01 Oct 2020-Art, Design and Communication in Higher Education (Intellect)-Vol. 19, Iss: 2, pp 221-240
TL;DR: In this paper, a group of 160 volunteers participated in the study, with participants asked to design villas in both natural (non-VR) and virtual reality (VR) environments within a specific period.
Abstract: This study mainly examines the contribution of the virtual reality environment to architectural education. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the theoretical possibilities of VR technology in an interactive and participatory educational environment that would allow students to examine architectural components and inter-component relationships. A group of 160 volunteers participated in the study, with participants asked to design villas in both natural (non-VR) and virtual reality (VR) environments within a specific period. Designs made in both environments (VR and non-VR) were evaluated by a team of five experts (jurors). For the evaluation, jurors wore eye-tracking devices and were asked to comment on the designs in both environments. In the virtual reality environment designs, the following categories showed significant differences over the drawings in a natural environment: functionality, aesthetics, user perception of space and internal physical quality (light quality), indicating that the virtual reality designs were examined more closely by the jurors than were those in the natural environment. This study will contribute to design discipline if virtual reality systems are adopted in architecture education.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of using VR technology on the students' learning abilities of history of architecture was examined by creating virtual environments for two selected architectural examples from the Modern Architecture course, and participants who were students of Modern Architecture class had to complete two questionnaires, one for each example.
Abstract: Purpose Virtual reality (VR) technology invaded various domains including architecture practice and education. Despite its high applications in architecture design education, VR has a high potential to be used in architectural history courses as well. This paper aims to examine the effect of using VR technology on the students’ learning abilities of history of architecture. Design/methodology/approach The experimental approach was used. Two experiments were designed by creating virtual environments for two selected architectural examples from the Modern Architecture course. The participants who were students of Modern Architecture class had to complete two questionnaires, one for each example. The first one was based on Bloom’s taxonomy, and the other was prepared to test the participants’ analytical and critical skills. Besides, participants had to fill out satisfaction and ease-of-use survey on a five-step Likert scale. Findings Participants in the VR condition achieved better grades in knowledge gain compared to those in the traditional conditions. Their analytical and critical thinking skills were improved in the VR conditions. Gender has a significant impact on analytical and critical thinking skills. Participants recorded a high level of satisfaction; however, male students were more satisfied than female students who reported concerns about the weight of the used tools and nausea symptoms. Research limitations/implications This study informs architecture education and provides insights into the potentials of using advanced technology in architectural history education. Teaching the various history of architecture courses will be improved, shifted toward a more student-centered curriculum, and may acquire more excitement and conscious curiosity. Originality/value Using VR in architectural education is rigorous in architectural design courses and students’ design projects’ presentations. This research expands architectural education research by examining other ways of teaching history of architecture courses and its effect on the students’ knowledge gain and performance.
TL;DR: This work aims to do a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) relying on the guidelines of Kitchenham and Petersen to analyze the state of the art of VR applications using multi-agent systems.
Abstract: Multi-agent systems integrate a great variety of artificial intelligence techniques from different fields, these systems have made it possible to create intelligent systems more efficiently. On the other hand, virtual reality applications are accepted as viable techniques in different areas such as visualization, simulation, design, and research. The combined use of these two technologies has led to the development of realistic and interactive applications. This work aims to do a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) relying on the guidelines of Kitchenham and Petersen to analyze the state of the art of VR applications using multi-agent systems. Inclusion and exclusion criteria have been applied to identify relevant papers, 82 articles were selected and categorized according to the publication type, the research type, the asset type, and the purpose of the work. A complete review of the 82 selected articles was performed, based on the research questions that were established. This review made it possible to clarify the open lines of research that exist and to know where research in this field can be directed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the current lines of research at the international level, during the period 1952-2020, on the visual arts in the university educational ecosystem and found that scientific production has increased mainly in the last decade, making up around 70% of all publications.
Abstract: Throughout history, the visual arts have allowed for a dynamic of aesthetic feedback, cultural plurality, and a standardization of the artistic phenomenon. The objective of this study is to analyze the current lines of research at the international level, during the period 1952–2020, on the visual arts in the university educational ecosystem. Bibliometric techniques were applied to 1727 articles in the thematic area of the “Arts and Humanities” to obtain the findings included in this report. Scientific production has increased mainly in the last decade, making up around 70% of all publications. Five schools of knowledge have been identified that generate articles on this topic related to art, visual culture, modernity, music, and history. The growing trend of scientific production worldwide shows the interest in developing aspects of this field of study. This article contributes to the academic, scientific, and institutional discussion on the role of the visual arts in contemporary society.
01 Nov 2022
TL;DR: In this article , a systematic review study synthesizes research findings pertaining to the use of eye-tracking technology in immersive virtual reality (IVR) learning environments created by using head mounted displays.
Abstract: This systematic review study synthesizes research findings pertaining to the use of eye-tracking technology in immersive virtual reality (IVR) learning environments created by using head mounted displays. Research published between January 2012 and May 2022 has been explored and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria have been applied to select articles. Fifty articles were selected and then reviewed with respect to (1) devices employed in research; (2) learning domains; (3) the number and academic level of participants, data collection methods, and duration of IVR activities; and (4) indicators and themes of visual attention. The main findings from this review demonstrate Tobii and HTC Vive are the most popular tools in research on eye-tracking technology usage in IVR learning environments. What's more, cognitive science and educational technology were found to be the most frequent domains in research on eye-tracking technology usage in IVR. The number of participants varied across reviewed articles but tertiary education was the most common academic level of participating students. Scholars used questionnaires and tests frequently to collect their research data. Fixation duration was the most frequently used indicator. The most frequent themes in reviewed research were task performance, teaching and learning strategies, and learning tools. The study concludes with suggestions for future research. • We reviewed thirty-six articles on eye-tracking technology in IVR. • Our focus was on devices, domains, methods, indicators and themes in research. • Future research directions were also provided.
TL;DR: In this paper , the exploratory potentials of sketch modelling in the introductory architectural design studio were investigated, and it was found that sketch modelling helps first-year students overcome design issues in the making of design.
Abstract: This study investigated the exploratory potentials of sketch modelling in the introductory architectural design studio. It focused on the course ‘ARCH 102 Architectural Design Studio I’, in which sketch modelling was deployed as a creative problem-solving practice, triggering an exploratory process through thinking and doing. The study adopted the case-study method. Hence, the principal sources of data are student projects and studio tutors’ first-hand observations and reflections. The findings reveal that, along with its iterative and communicative functions, the exploratory nature of sketch modelling helps first-year students overcome design issues in the making of design. The findings lay the groundwork for more systematic studies on reflective learning practices in design education.
TL;DR: Research on the following topics is reviewed with respect to reading: (a) the perceptual span, (or span of effective vision), (b) preview benefit, (c) eye movement control, and (d) models of eye movements.
Abstract: Eye movements are now widely used to investigate cognitive processes during reading, scene perception, and visual search. In this article, research on the following topics is reviewed with respect to reading: (a) the perceptual span (or span of effective vision), (b) preview benefit, (c) eye movement control, and (d) models of eye movements. Related issues with respect to eye movements during scene perception and visual search are also reviewed. It is argued that research on eye movements during reading has been somewhat advanced over research on eye movements in scene perception and visual search and that some of the paradigms developed to study reading should be more widely adopted in the study of scene perception and visual search. Research dealing with "real-world" tasks and research utilizing the visual-world paradigm are also briefly discussed.
TL;DR: Results suggest games show higher learning gains than simulations and virtual worlds, and for simulation studies, elaborate explanation type feedback is more suitable for declarative tasks whereas knowledge of correct response is more appropriate for procedural tasks.
Abstract: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine overall effect as well as the impact of selected instructional design principles in the context of virtual reality technology-based instruction (i.e. games, simulation, virtual worlds) in K-12 or higher education settings. A total of 13 studies (N?=?3081) in the category of games, 29 studies (N?=?2553) in the category of games, and 27 studies (N?=?2798) in the category of virtual worlds were meta-analyzed. The key inclusion criteria were that the study came from K-12 or higher education settings, used experimental or quasi-experimental research designs, and used a learning outcome measure to evaluate the effects of the virtual reality-based instruction.Results suggest games (FEM?=?0.77; REM?=?0.51), simulations (FEM?=?0.38; REM?=?0.41), and virtual worlds (FEM?=?0.36; REM?=?0.41) were effective in improving learning outcome gains. The homogeneity analysis of the effect sizes was statistically significant, indicating that the studies were different from each other. Therefore, we conducted moderator analysis using 13 variables used to code the studies. Key findings included that: games show higher learning gains than simulations and virtual worlds. For simulation studies, elaborate explanation type feedback is more suitable for declarative tasks whereas knowledge of correct response is more appropriate for procedural tasks. Students performance is enhanced when they conduct the game play individually than in a group. In addition, we found an inverse relationship between number of treatment sessions learning gains for games.With regards to the virtual world, we found that if students were repeatedly measured it deteriorates their learning outcome gains. We discuss results to highlight the importance of considering instructional design principles when designing virtual reality-based instruction. A comprehensive review of virtual reality-based instruction research.Analysis of the moderation effects of design features in a virtual environment.Using an advance statistical technique of meta-analysis to study the effects.Virtual reality environment is effective for teaching in K-12 and higher education.Results can be used by instructional designers to design the virtual environments.
TL;DR: Findings show that collaboration and social negotiation are not only limited to the participants of an EVE, but exist between participants and avatars, offering a new dimension to computer assisted learning.
Abstract: This study is a ten-year critical review of empirical research on the educational applications of Virtual Reality (VR). Results show that although the majority of the 53 reviewed articles refer to science and mathematics, researchers from social sciences also seem to appreciate the educational value of VR and incorporate their learning goals in Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). Although VR supports multisensory interaction channels, visual representations predominate. Few are the studies that incorporate intuitive interactivity, indicating a research trend in this direction. Few are the settings that use immersive EVEs reporting positive results on users' attitudes and learning outcomes, indicating that there is a need for further research on the capabilities of such systems. Features of VR that contribute to learning such as first order experiences, natural semantics, size, transduction, reification, autonomy and presence are exploited according to the educational context and content. Presence seems to play an important role in learning and it is a subject needing further and intensive studies. Constructivism seems to be the theoretical model the majority of the EVEs are based on. The studies present real world, authentic tasks that enable context and content dependent knowledge construction. They also provide multiple representations of reality by representing the natural complexity of the world. Findings show that collaboration and social negotiation are not only limited to the participants of an EVE, but exist between participants and avatars, offering a new dimension to computer assisted learning. Little can yet be concluded regarding the retention of the knowledge acquired in EVEs. Longitudinal studies are necessary, and we believe that the main outcome of this study is the future research perspectives it brings to light.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: A survey on the scientific literature on the advantages and potentials in the use of Immersive Virtual Reality in Education in the last two years shows how VR in general, and immersive VR in particular, has been used mostly for adult training in special situations or for university students.
Abstract: Since the first time the term "Virtual Reality" (VR) has been used back in the 60s, VR has evolved in different manners becoming more and more similar to the real world. Two different kinds of VR can be identified: non-immersive and immersive. The former is a computer-based environment that can simulate places in the real or imagined worlds; the latter takes the idea even further by giving the perception of being physically present in the non-physical world. While non-immersive VR can be based on a standard computer, immersive VR is still evolving as the needed devices are becoming more user friendly and economically accessible. In the past, there was a major difficulty about using equipment such as a helmet with goggles, while now new devices are being developed to make usability better for the user. VR, which is based on three basic principles: Immersion, Interaction, and User involvement with the environment and narrative, offers a very high potential in education by making learning more motivating and engaging. Up to now, the use of immersive-VR in educational games has been limited due to high prices of the devices and their limited usability. Now new tools like the commercial "Oculus Rift", make it possible to access immersive-VR in lots of educational situations. This paper reports a survey on the scientific literature on the advantages and potentials in the use of Immersive Virtual Reality in Education in the last two years (2013-14). It shows how VR in general, and immersive VR in particular, has been used mostly for adult training in special situations or for university students. It then focuses on the possible advantages and drawbacks of its use in education with reference to different classes of users like children and some kinds of cognitive disabilities (with particular reference to the Down syndrome). It concludes outlining strategies that could be carried out to verify these ideas.
TL;DR: This work argues that boredom is universally conceptualized as “the aversive experience of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity,” and proposes that boredom be defined in terms of attention.
Abstract: Our central goal is to provide a definition of boredom in terms of the underlying mental processes that occur during an instance of boredom. Through the synthesis of psychodynamic, existential, arousal, and cognitive theories of boredom, we argue that boredom is universally conceptualized as "the aversive experience of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity." We propose to map this conceptualization onto underlying mental processes. Specifically, we propose that boredom be defined in terms of attention. That is, boredom is the aversive state that occurs when we (a) are not able to successfully engage attention with internal (e.g., thoughts or feelings) or external (e.g., environmental stimuli) information required for participating in satisfying activity, (b) are focused on the fact that we are not able to engage attention and participate in satisfying activity, and (c) attribute the cause of our aversive state to the environment. We believe that our definition of boredom fully accounts for the phenomenal experience of boredom, brings existing theories of boredom into dialogue with one another, and suggests specific directions for future research on boredom and attention.