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Journal ArticleDOI

Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond bursts and field-aligned potentials

01 Jan 2007-Planetary and Space Science (Pergamon)-Vol. 55, Iss: 1, pp 89-99

AbstractJovian millisecond (or S-) bursts are intense impulsive decametric radio bursts drifting in frequency in tens of milliseconds. Most of the theories about their origin comprise an interpretation of their frequency drift. Previous analyses suggest that S-bursts are cyclotron-maser emission in the flux tubes connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. Electrons are thought to be accelerated from Io to Jupiter. Near Jupiter, a loss cone appears in the magnetically mirrored electron population, which is able to amplify extraordinary (X) mode radio waves. Here, we perform an automated analysis of 230 high-resolution dynamic spectra of S-bursts, providing 5 × 10 6 frequency drift measurements. Our data are consistent with the above scenario. In addition, we confirm over a large number of measurements that the frequency drift d f / d t ( f ) is in average negative and decreases (in absolute value) at high frequencies, as predicted by the adiabatic theory. We find a typical energy of 4 keV for the emitting electrons. In 15% of the cases (out of 230), we find for the first time evidence of localized ∼ 1 keV electric potential jumps at high latitudes along the field lines connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. These potential jumps appear stable over tens of minutes. Finally, a statistical analysis suggests the existence of a distributed parallel acceleration of the emitting electrons along the same field lines.

Topics: Jupiter (57%), Jovian (56%), Frequency drift (53%), Field line (52%), Radio wave (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The electron–cyclotron maser is a process that generates coherent radiation from plasma. In the last two decades, it has gained increasing attention as a dominant mechanism of producing high-power radiation in natural high-temperature magnetized plasmas. Originally proposed as a somewhat exotic idea and subsequently applied to include non-relativistic plasmas, the electron–cyclotron maser was considered as an alternative to turbulent though coherent wave–wave interaction which results in radio emission. However, when it was recognized that weak relativistic corrections had to be taken into account in the radiation process, the importance of the electron–cyclotron maser rose to the recognition it deserves. Here we review the theory and application of the electron–cyclotron maser to the directly accessible plasmas in our immediate terrestrial and planetary environments. In situ access to the radiating plasmas has turned out to be crucial in identifying the conditions under which the electron–cyclotron maser mechanism is working. Under extreme astrophysical conditions, radiation from plasmas may provide a major energy loss; however, for generating the powerful radiation in which the electron–cyclotron maser mechanism is capable, the plasma must be in a state where release of susceptible amounts of energy in the form of radiation is favorable. Such conditions are realized when the plasma is unable to digest the available free energy that is imposed from outside and stored in its particle distribution. The lack of dissipative processes is a common property of collisionless plasmas. When, in addition, the plasma density becomes so low that the amount of free energy per particle is large, direct emission becomes favorable. This can be expressed as negative absorption of the plasma which, like in conventional masers, leads to coherent emission even though no quantum correlations are involved. The physical basis of this formal analogy between a quantum maser and the electron–cyclotron maser is that in the electron–cyclotron maser the free-space radiation modes can be amplified directly. Several models have been proposed for such a process. The most famous one is the so-called loss-cone maser. However, as argued in this review, the loss-cone maser is rather inefficient. Available in situ measurements indicate that the loss-cone maser plays only a minor role. Instead, the main source for any strong electron–cyclotron maser is found in the presence of a magnetic-field-aligned electric potential drop which has several effects: (1) it dilutes the local plasma to such an extent that the plasma enters the regime in which the electron–cyclotron maser becomes effective; (2) it generates energetic relativistic electron beams and field-aligned currents; (3) it deforms, together with the magnetic mirror force, the electron distribution function, thereby mimicking a high energy level sufficiently far above the Maxwellian ground state of an equilibrium plasma; (4) it favors emission in the free-space RX mode in a direction roughly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field; (5) this emission is the most intense, since it implies the coherent resonant contribution of a maximum number of electrons in the distribution function to the radiation (i.e., to the generation of negative absorption); (6) it generates a large number of electron holes via the two-stream instability, and ion holes via the current-driven ion-acoustic instability which manifest themselves as subtle fine structures moving across the radiation spectrum and being typical for the electron–cyclotron maser emission process. These fine structures can thus be taken as the ultimate identifier of the electron–cyclotron maser. The auroral kilometric radiation of Earth is taken here as the paradigm for other manifestations of intense radio emissions such as the radiation from other planets in the solar system, from exoplanets, the Sun and other astrophysical objects.

322 citations


Cites background from "Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond..."

  • ...Recently, Zarka et al. (2005) argued that S-bursts are the result of loss-cone maser activity inside the Io flux tube....

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  • ...…extrasolar planets has immediately stimulated the idea that in analogy to the strongly magnetized planets in the solar system, exoplanets could also radiate in the radio band, possibly emitting maser radiation (Farrell et al. 1999; Bastian et al. 2000; Zarka et al. 2001b; Winterhalter et al. 2005)....

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  • ...Application to Jupiter and radiation from the other magnetized planets followed, and speculations about radiation emitted from extrasolar planets when they are magnetized strongly enough have been published as well (Bastian et al. 2000; Zarka et al. 2001a,b)....

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  • ...Searches have been going on at the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico (Bastian et al. 2000) and a comparable array UTR-2 in Kharkov (Ukraine) (Zarka et al. 2001b)....

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  • ...From the knowledge of the emissivities of Earth and Jupiter under solar-wind conditions, one may scale emissivities up to exoplanets of the family of ‘hot Jupiters’ close to their mother stars (Zarka et al. 2001b)....

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Abstract: In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and venture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we review current understanding of the structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere and summarize the outstanding issues. The Juno mission profile involves (a) a several-week approach from the dawn side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere, with an orbit-insertion maneuver on July 6, 2016; (b) a 107-day capture orbit, also on the dawn flank; and (c) a series of thirty 11-day science orbits with the spacecraft flying over Jupiter’s poles and ducking under the radiation belts. We show how Juno’s view of the magnetosphere evolves over the year of science orbits. The Juno spacecraft carries a range of instruments that take particles and fields measurements, remote sensing observations of auroral emissions at UV, visible, IR and radio wavelengths, and detect microwave emission from Jupiter’s radiation belts. We summarize how these Juno measurements address issues of auroral processes, microphysical plasma physics, ionosphere-magnetosphere and satellite-magnetosphere coupling, sources and sinks of plasma, the radiation belts, and the dynamics of the outer magnetosphere. To reach Jupiter, the Juno spacecraft passed close to the Earth on October 9, 2013, gaining the necessary energy to get to Jupiter. The Earth flyby provided an opportunity to test Juno’s instrumentation as well as take scientific data in the terrestrial magnetosphere, in conjunction with ground-based and Earth-orbiting assets.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The ionospheric response to auroral precipitation at the giant planets is reviewed, using models and observations The emission processes for aurorae at radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths are described, and exemplified using ground- and space-based observations Comparisons between the emissions at different wavelengths are made, where possible, and interpreted in terms of precipitating particle characteristics or atmospheric conditions Finally, the spatial distributions and dynamics of the various components of the aurorae (moon footprints, low-latitude, main oval, polar) are related to magnetospheric processes and boundaries, using theory, in situ, and remote observations, with the aim of distinguishing between those related to internally-driven dynamics, and those related to the solar wind interaction

89 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: [1] Io's motion relative to the Jovian magnetic field generates a power of about 1012 W, which is thought to propagate as an Alfven wave along the magnetic field line. This power is transmitted to the electrons, which will then precipitate and generate the observed auroral phenomena from UV to radio wavelengths. A more detailed look at this hypothesis shows some difficulties: Can the Alfven waves escape the torus or are they trapped inside? Where and how are the particles accelerated? In which direction? Is there enough power transmitted to the particles to explain the strong brightness of the auroral emissions in UV, IR, visible, and radio? In other words, can we make a global, consistent model of the Io-Jupiter interaction that matches all the observations? To answer these questions, we review the models and studies that have been proposed so far. We show that the Alfven waves need to be filamented by a turbulent cascade process and accelerate the electrons at high latitude in order to explain the observations and to form a consistent scheme of the Io-Jupiter interaction.

76 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: [1] The electrodynamic interaction between Io and Jupiter causes electron acceleration in/near the Io flux tube (IFT), which in turn produces intense radio emissions in the hecto-decameter range, displaying arc shapes in the time-frequency plane. The shapes depend on the hemisphere of origin of the emission and on the Io-Jupiter-observer geometry. Assuming radio wave generation by the cyclotron-maser instability, we simulate t-f arc shapes as a function of emission beaming, lead angle between the radio emitting field line and the instantaneous Io field line, and electron energy. A good fit of arcs t-f location and shape is obtained for loss-cone driven (oblique) emission beamed in a hollow cone of half-angle ≥80° around the source magnetic field, closing at high frequencies, and of cone thickness ≤1°. The lead angle is found between a few degrees and ∼40° in both hemispheres. Resonant electron energies are about a few keV. Implications on the absence of a plasma cavity at IFT footprints and on Jupiter's internal magnetic field model are discussed.

62 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: During magnetospheric substorms, electrons with energies of about 1 keV are injected from the plasma-sheet region into the auroral region. A fraction of these energetic electrons can precipitate into the upper atmosphere, and the rest are reflected because of the mirror effect of the convergent geomagnetic field. It is found that these reflected electrons can result in the amplification of electromagnetic waves via a relativistic normal cyclotron resonance. This process may explain the recently discovered terrestrial kilometric radiation.

894 citations


"Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The magnetic mirror at the foot of the Io flux tube (IFT) reflects a part of the electrons, whose distribution is then unstable relative to the cyclotron-maser instability and produces emission at the local cyclotron frequency (Wu and Lee, 1979; Louarn, 1992)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: dc and ac plasma-density and vector-electric-field detectors on a polar orbiting satellite have measured spatially confined regions of extremely large (\ensuremath{\sim}\textonehalf{} V/m) electric fields in the auroral zone at altitudes below 8000 km. Such regions frequently have double structures of opposing electric fields containing characteristic and different wave spectra internal and external to themselves. These structures are identified as paired electrostatic shocks which are associated with electrostatic ion cyclotron wave turbulence.

660 citations


"Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Potential drops like those evidenced in Section 5 are observed in situ in the terrestrial auroral zones (Mozer et al., 1977)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a nonlinear analytical model of the Alfven current tubes continuing the currents through Io (or rather its ionosphere) generated by the unipolar inductor effect due to Io's motion relative to the magnetospheric plasma. We thereby extend the linear work by Drell et al. (1965) to the fully nonlinear, sub-Alfvenic situation also including flow which is not perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The following principal results have been obtained: (1) The portion of the currents feeding Io is aligned with the Alfven characteristics at an angle θA = tan−1 MA to the magnetic field for the special case of perpendicular flow where MA is the Alfven Mach number. (2) The Alfven tubes act like an external conductance ΣA = 1/(µ0VA(1 + MA² + 2MA sin θ)1/2) where VA is the Alfven speed and θ the angular deviation from perpendicular flow towards the direction of Alfven wave propagation. Hence the Jovian ionospheric conductivity is not necessary for current closure. (3) In addition, the Alfven tubes may be reflected from either the torus boundary or the Jovian ionosphere. The efficiency of the resulting interaction with these boundaries varies with Io position. The interaction is particularly strong at extreme magnetic latitudes, thereby suggesting a mechanism for the Io control of decametric emissions. (4) The reflected Alfven waves may heat both the torus plasma and the Jovian ionosphere as well as produce increased diffusion of high-energy particles in the torus. (5) From the point of view of the electrodynamic interaction, Io is unique among the Jovian satellites for several reasons: these include its ionosphere arising from ionized volcanic gases, a high external Alfvenic conductance ΣA, and a high corotational voltage in addition to the interaction phenomenon with a boundary. (6) We find that Amalthea is probably strongly coupled to Jupiter's ionosphere while the outer Galilean satellites may occasionally experience super-Alfvenic conditions.

500 citations


"Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This electric field induces currents and/or Alfvén waves (Goldreich and Lynden-Bell, 1969; Neubauer, 1980; Saur, 2004) which accelerate electrons from the Io torus toward Jupiter along the magnetic field...

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  • ...As the Io–Jupiter plasma has the structure of an Alfvén wing (Neubauer, 1980; Saur, 2004), we can expect that Alfvén waves play an important role in the acceleration of the electrons....

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Journal ArticleDOI

467 citations


"Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This electric field induces currents and/or Alfvén waves (Goldreich and Lynden-Bell, 1969; Neubauer, 1980; Saur, 2004) which accelerate electrons from the Io torus toward Jupiter along the magnetic field...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Spherical harmonic models of the planetary magnetic field of Jupiter are obtained from in situ magnetic field measurements and remote observations of the position of the foot of the Io flux tube in Jupiter's ionosphere. The Io flux tube (IFT) footprint locates the ionospheric footprint of field lines traced from Io's orbital radial distance in the equator plane (5.9 Jovian radii). The IFT footprint is a valuable constraint on magnetic field models, providing “ground truth” information in a region close to the planet and thus far not sampled by spacecraft. The magnetic field is represented using a spherical harmonic expansion of degree and order 4 for the planetary (“internal”) field and an explicit model of the magnetodisc for the field (“external”) due to distributed currents. Models fitting Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 magnetometer observations and the IFT footprint are obtained by partial solution of the underdetermined inverse problem using generalized inverse techniques. Dipole, quadrupole, octupole, and a subset of higher-degree and higher-order spherical harmonic coefficients are determined and compared with earlier models.

414 citations


"Io Jupiter interaction, millisecond..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...A more accurate magnetic field model is VIP4 (Connerney et al., 1998) based on Voyager and Pioneer magnetometer measurements together with IR observation of the IFT footprint at the surface of Jupiter....

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  • ...Thus, we analyze each individual dynamic spectrum, using the more accurate VIP4 magnetic field model (Connerney et al., 1998)....

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