scispace - formally typeset

Journal Article

Is there a relationship between chemistry performance and question type, question content and gender?

01 Mar 2012-Science education international (International Council of Associations for Science Education. Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Education, Buca, Izmir 35150, Turkey. Tel: +90-532-4267927; Fax: +90-232-4204895; Web site: http://icaseonline.net)-Vol. 23, Iss: 1, pp 56-83

AbstractThis research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions - multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions - used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined (recall and application questions). The research involves class trial testing of students with structured questions that examine the same material content with each type of question (multiple-choice or short-answer) and also examines the different type of content (recall or application) and finally the influence of student gender. Rasch analysis of the class trial data, including gender difference analysis, is performed and the analyses related to performance characteristics of the State University Entrance Examination. It is found that male students achieve higher scores than female students with respect to mean scores on both tests and sub-tests. However, when student abilities, as measured by Rasch analysis were considered, male and female students of equal abilities perform equally well in each test comparison suggesting that

Topics: Rasch model (55%), Item response theory (50%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: NCEE score was a significant predictor of both within-major and between-major variation of first-year GPA for medical students, and individual socio-demographic characteristics and major-level characteristics should be taken into account to understand better and improve the first- year GPA of medical students.
Abstract: Although medical education has developed rapidly in the last decade, and the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) is used as the "gold standard" for admission to medical college in mainland China, there is a lack of literature regarding the influence of NCEE score and other factors on the academic performance of medical students. This study aimed to examine potential predictors of first-year grade point average (GPA) for medical students. This study included 1,285 students who matriculated at a first-tier medical university in mainland China in 2011. The precollege motivational attitudes for each matriculate were investigated via questionnaire. A hierarchical linear model was fitted to regress first-year GPA on a 100-point scale on NCEE score and other student-level and major-level characteristics. NCEE score was a significant predictor of both within-major and between-major variation of first-year GPA for medical students. Majors with higher mean NCEE scores had higher mean GPAs, and higher GPAs were observed among those individuals with higher NCEE scores after controlling for major-level characteristics. First-year GPA differed by certain individual socio-demographic variables. Female students had a 2.44-higher GPA on average than did male students. NCEE repeaters had a 1.55-lower GPA than non-repeaters. First-year GPA was associated negatively with parental income but positively with academic self-concept. NCEE score is an important predictor of the first-year GPA of medical students, but it is not the sole determinant. Individual socio-demographic characteristics and major-level characteristics should be taken into account to understand better and improve the first-year GPA of medical students.

19 citations


Cites background or result from "Is there a relationship between che..."

  • ...We found that female students had higher first-year GPAs than male students, most likely because females are generally more interested in studying a science that they perceive as a helping science, a people-oriented science, or a nurturing science [23]....

    [...]

  • ...Although previous studies have demonstrated differences in first-year GPA by gender, there are conflicting reports in the literature as to whether male or female students perform better [21-24]....

    [...]


01 Jan 2014

7 citations


Cites result from "Is there a relationship between che..."

  • ...Q1 & Q2a/b: Mixed Methods: Overall Comparison of This Study’s Results with Those of Previous Studies In the past, researchers agreed that it was males who outperformed females in mathematics and science (Hudson, 2012)....

    [...]

  • ...Q1 & Q2a/b: Mixed Methods: Overall Comparison of This Study’s Results with Those of Previous Studies In the past, researchers agreed that it was males who outperformed females in mathematics and science (Hudson, 2012)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of this research confirm the findings of several other researchers that the use of ICT and the application of MCQ is an added value in the evaluation process.
Abstract: Aim/Purpose: This paper presents a data mining approach for analyzing responses to advanced declarative programming questions. The goal of this research is to find a model that can explain the results obtained by students when they perform exams with Constructed Response questions and with equivalent Multiple-Choice Questions. Background: The assessment of acquired knowledge is a fundamental role in the teaching-learning process. It helps to identify the factors that can contribute to the teacher in the developing of pedagogical methods and evaluation tools and it also contributes to the self-regulation process of learning. However, better format of questions to assess declarative programming knowledge is still a subject of ongoing debate. While some research advocates the use of constructed responses, others emphasize the potential of multiple-choice questions. Methodology: A sensitivity analysis was applied to extract useful knowledge from the relevance of the characteristics (i.e., the input variables) used for the data mining process to compute the score. Contribution: Such knowledge helps the teachers to decide which format they must consider with respect to the objectives and expected students results. Findings: The results shown a set of factors that influence the discrepancy between answers in both formats. Recommendations for Practitioners: Teachers can make an informed decision about whether to choose multiple-choice questions or constructed-response taking into account the results of this study. Recommendation for Researchers: In this study a block of exams with CR questions is verified to complement the area of learning, returning greater performance in the evaluation of students and improving the teaching-learning process. Impact on Society: The results of this research confirm the findings of several other researchers that the use of ICT and the application of MCQ is an added value in the evaluation process. In most cases the student is more likely to succeed with MCQ, however if the teacher prefers to evaluate with CR other research approaches are needed. Future Research: Future research must include other question formats.

4 citations


Cites background from "Is there a relationship between che..."

  • ...The question topic was considered because it would be interesting to verify the student’s performance with the content type of the question (see Hudson, 2012)....

    [...]

  • ...The student gender was also considered to evaluate whether the scores are equal or not, as happens with Hudson (2012)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The paper reports on a study aimed at investigating perceived gender differences in performance in science at secondary school level, as well as beliefs on possible underlying causes for these differences. The study is situated within the interpretivist paradigm and uses a typology of factors drawn from the Educational Effectiveness Research model as a conceptual framework. Six purposively selected secondary schools participated in the study. Focus group discussions were conducted with 48 learners and 22 teachers, and a questionnaire was administered to the six principals of the participating schools. The study indicates that learners and teachers have mixed views on which gender performs best in the sciences. All principals perceived boys as performing best. The perceived reasons for gender differences in performance are wide ranging and reflect broadly student and classroom factors. They include learners’ self-efficacy including attitudes towards science; gendered thinking and aptitude; diligence and pe...

2 citations


Cites background from "Is there a relationship between che..."

  • ...On the other hand, where boys and girls have similar abilities, their performance in science does not show any significant difference (Hudson, 2012)....

    [...]


17 Dec 2015
TL;DR: Thesis (M.S. Biological Sciences (Molecular and Cellular Biology))--California State University, Sacramento, 2015.
Abstract: Thesis (M.S. Biological Sciences (Molecular and Cellular Biology))--California State University, Sacramento, 2015.

References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1980
Abstract: Part One: The Context Of Educational Research Part Two: Planning Educational Research Part Three: Styles Of Educational Research Part Four: Strategies And Instruments For Data Collection And Researching Part Five: Data Analysis

20,255 citations


Book
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: The SPSS Survival Manual throws a lifeline to students and researchers grappling with this data analysis software, in this thoroughly revised edition of her.
Abstract: Click on the arrow button to move the variable name into Chapter 4 Creating a data file and entering data 39 Step 2: Enter the data Spss survival. The SPSS Survival Manual throws a lifeline to students and researchers grappling with this data analysis software.In this thoroughly revised edition of her. Download PDF SPSS Survival Manual A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. SPSS SURVIVAL MANUAL. Are you come upon Spss Survival Manual? Great! We have the file you need: spss survival manual. The spss survival manual. To cite this article: Yeung, Polly. SPSS survival manual. A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (5th ed) (Book Review) (online). Aotearoa New.

4,771 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Two lines of thinking are becoming increasingly important in higher educational practice. The first derives from constructivist learning theory, and the second from the instructional design literature. Constructivism comprises a family of theories but all have in common the centrality of the learner's activities in creating meaning. These and related ideas have important implications for teaching and assessment. Instructional designers for their part have emphasised alignment between the objectives of a course or unit and the targets for assessing student performance. “Constructive alignment” represents a marriage of the two thrusts, constructivism being used as a framework to guide decision-making at all stages in instructional design: in deriving curriculum objectives in terms of performances that represent a suitably high cognitive level, in deciding teaching/learning activities judged to elicit those performances, and to assess and summatively report student performance. The “performances of understanding” nominated in the objectives are thus used to systematically align the teaching methods and the assessment. The process is illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model may be generalized to most units or programs in higher education.

2,440 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Biggs (1996) findings point to the conclusion that, although items in objective multiple-choice tests can assess high level thinking, they rarely go beyond Bloom's comprehension level (Anderson, 1972; Marso & Pigge, 1991)....

    [...]


BookDOI
22 Jun 2005
Abstract: Fundamentals of Educational Research succeeds in cutting through the complexities of research to give the novice reader a sound basis to define, develop, and conduct study, while providing insights for even the accomplished reader.This best-selling book is of value to all social researchers, but in particular to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers employed in private industry, management and government agencies. Anderson discusses the research process and offers a wealth of information on how to define a research problem, plan a study, develop a research framework, collect the data, analyse it and write it into a credible paper or thesis. He has captured the essential components of the research process in a book that balances the quantitative and qualitative perspectives through both the academic and consulting research traditions.

1,268 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

1,250 citations