scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Isolation and characterization of a new thermophilic Methanosarcina strain (strain MP)

01 Sep 1984-Annales de microbiologie (Ann Microbiol (Paris))-Vol. 135, Iss: 2, pp 187-198

TL;DR: A thermophilic Methanosarcina strain was isolated from a digester fed with water hyacinths and inoculated with ground termites from the Congo and grew on acetate, methanol and methylamines in the absence of growth factors, but could not use H2-CO2 or formate.

AbstractA thermophilic Methanosarcina strain was isolated from a digester fed with water hyacinths and inoculated with ground termites from the Congo. Optimal growth temperature was 55 degrees C. Methane production was at its optimum between pH 6.5 and 7.0. The bacterium grew on acetate, methanol and methylamines in the absence of growth factors, but could not use H2-CO2 or formate. H2-CO2 inhibited acetate utilisation. Yeast extract and vitamins stimulated growth.

Topics: Methanosarcina (60%), Yeast extract (51%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: This work has shown that methane production is a ubiquitous, defining characteristic of methanogens, a group of microbes that is phylogenetically distinct from eukaryotes and true bacteria.
Abstract: The production of methane is a ubiquitous, defining characteristic of methanogens. The production of methane or any other hydrocarbon as a major catabolic product is unique to this group of microbes, which share many other characteristics that are not common among other microbes. Phylogenetically, methanogens are Archaeobacteria (Woese et al., 1978), a group of microbes that are distinguished from true bacteria by a number of characteristics, including the possession of membrane lipids composed of isoprenoids ether-linked to glycerol or other carbohydrates (De Rosa and Gambacorta, 1988; Jones et al., 1987; Langworthy, 1985), a lack of peptidoglycan containing muramic acid (Kandier and Hippe, 1977), and distinctive ribosomal RNA sequences (Balch et al., 1979; Woese, 1987). This group also includes some extreme halophiles and some extremely thermophilic, sulfur-dependent microbes (Woese, 1987) and is phylogenetically distinct from eukaryotes and true bacteria (Figure 1.1).

350 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Strain TMOT was able to degrade methanol to CO2 and H2 in syntrophic culture with Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus AH or Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii and is related to Thermotoga subterranea andThermotoga elfii.
Abstract: A novel, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, mobile, Gram-negative, thermophilic bacterium, strain TMOT, was isolated from a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bioreactor operated at 65 C with methanol as the sole substrate. The G+C content of the DNA of strain TMOT was 39.2 mol%. The optimum pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature for growth were 7.0, 1.0%, and 65 degrees C, respectively. Strain TMOT was able to degrade methanol to CO2 and H2 in syntrophic culture with Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus AH or Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii. Thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, Fe(III) and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate were able to serve as electron acceptors during methanol degradation. In the presence of thiosulfate or elemental sulfur, methanol was converted to CO2 and partly to alanine. In pure culture, strain TMOT was also able to ferment methanol to acetate, CO2 and H2. However, this degradation occurred slower than in syntrophic cultures or in the presence of electron acceptors. Yeast extract was required for growth. Besides growing on methanol, strain TMOT grew by fermentation on a variety of carbohydrates including monomeric and oligomeric sugars, starch and xylan. Acetate, alanine, CO2, H2, and traces of ethanol, lactate and alpha-aminobutyrate were produced during glucose fermentation. Comparison of 16S rDNA genes revealed that strain TMOT is related to Thermotoga subterranea (98%) and Thermotoga elfii (98%). The type strain is TMOT (= DSM 14385T = ATCC BAA-301T). On the basis of the fact that these organisms differ physiologically from strain TMOT, it is proposed that strain TMOT be classified as a new species, within the genus Thermotoga, as Thermotoga lettingae.

234 citations


Cites background from "Isolation and characterization of a..."

  • ...Methanogens degrade methanol to methane and carbon dioxide (Schnellen, 1947; Sowers & Ferry, 1983; Ollivier et al., 1984; Ni & Boone, 1991)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Thermophilic anaerobic digestion offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of medium- and high-strength wastewaters. However, literature reports reveal that thermophilic wastewater treatment systems are often more sensitive to environmental changes than the well-defined high-rate reactors at the mesophilic temperature range. Also, in many cases a poorer effluent quality is experienced while the carry over of suspended solids in the effluent is relatively high. In this paper recent achievements are discussed regarding the process stability of thermophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. Laboratory experiments reveal a relatively low sensitivity to temperature changes if high-rate reactors with immobilized biomass are used. Other results show that if a staged process is applied, thermophilic reactors can be operated for prolonged periods of time under extreme loading conditions (80-100 kg chemical oxygen demand.m-3.day-1), while the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the effluent remain at a low level.

95 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...1984); 5 = (Ollivier et al. 1984); 6 = (Clarens & Moletta 1990); 7 = (Touzel et al....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The effect of temperature on the conversion rates of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by thermophilic methanogenic sludge grown under different conditions was studied. Optimum temperatures for acetate degradation of sludges cultivated in serum bottles at 46, 55 and 64°C for 6–8 weeks were found to be strongly dependent on the cultivation temperature. However, sludges obtained after a start-up period of 6 months in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors, fed with VFA mixtures at 46, 55 and 64°C showed comparable temperature optima, irrespective of the temperature of cultivation. A high temperature susceptibility for methane production and propionate degradation and, to a lesser extent for butyrate degradation, was found during the start-up of thermophilic UASB reactors. The reactors were started-up at 38°C with VFA mixtures. Thereafter, the process temperature was increased up to 55°C in steps of 5°C. Each increment led to a sharp drop in the methane production rate. However, no severe deterioration of methanogenesis was observed if the increase of the process temperature was performed very slowly between 50 and 55°C. The results indicate that, with respect to the application of thermophilic high-rate systems, the sensitivity to temperature fluctuations will decrease in time. A high sensitivity is expected if the maximum microbial growth-rate is the predominant selection criterion for the thermophilic methanogens.

92 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study focuses on the development and outline of a new treatment based on 16-year-old ribonucleic acid, as well as evidence in support of the new taxonomic treatment.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION ........ ...... ........ 261 GROWTH OF METHANOGENS 262 Techniques for Growth of Methanogens ..... 262 Principal Media......6..3.. . .... ....... .. . 263 Strain Histories.................2..6..4............. 264 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition Determination (Moles Percent Guanine plusCytosine). 264 GENERATION OF 16S RIBOSOMAL RIBONUCLEIC ACID OLIGONUCLEOTIDE CATALOGS ..............................2................... 264 Labeling and Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Isolation ..... .. . 264 Determination of Oligonucleotide Catalog .26........6.. 26 Analysis ofData ............2......6.. .. . . .... . ..6. ... ... 26 COMPARATIVE CATALOGING OF 17 METHANOGENS 266 DEVELOPMENT AND OUTLINE OF A NEW TAXONOMIC TREATMENT BASED ON 16S RIBOSOMAL RIBONUCLEIC ACID ................ 267 Orders ................................................... 268 Families .2......6.8......................6....... 268 Genera.......... 269 Species ...2.6.......9......... 269 EVIDENCE IN SUPPORT OF THE NEW TAXONOMIC TREATMENT ........ 276 Cell Wall Structure and Composition .. .......... ........ 276 Order I, Methanobacteriales.276 Order II, Methanococcales 8 Order m, Methanomicrobiales.27 LFimpid Composition.279 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition (Moles Percent Guanine plus Cytosine) ................................................................ 280 Substrates for Growth and Methane Production 280 Metabolic Pathways ................. .. 281 Coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) .. .. ....... .... 281 Coenzyme F420 .......................................... 282 Intermediary metabolism .... .... ...... .... .... 282 Ribosomal and Transfer Ribonucleic Acids of Typical Bacteria and Methanogens .............. 282 Genome Sizes of Typical Bacteria and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophi-

2,666 citations



01 Jan 1969
Abstract: Habitats devoid of oxygen include the interior of the alimentary tracts of most mammals, the lower portions of many oligotrophic lakes, the sediment underlying bodies of water, and water logged soils. Water, the continuous phase in all these habitats, is chiefly responsible for the lack of O2. One ml of water equilibrated with air contains only about 8 /il of O2, compared to 210 ?l 02/ml of air. This oxygen is soon used by aerobic microbes if other suitable foods are available. Oxygen is re moved by metabolism as rapidly as it enters anaerobic habitats. Both euryoxic and anaerobic bacteria have evolved in these habitats. In most continuously anaerobic habitats obligate anaerobes are more a bundant than euryoxic types, possibly because the latter bear a burden of aerobic metabolic capacities unused in the anaerobic environment. Usual aerobic petri plates or similar containers are suitable to culture the euryoxic microbes, but most anaerobes fail to grow in the presence of air. The anaerobes can be classed as oxyduric, i.e. surviving exposure to O2 but not growing in its presence, and oxylabile Species, killed by exposure to O2. Many oxyduric anaerobes can be handled in much the same fashion as aerobes, except that after plates are streaked they must be incubated

1,404 citations


01 Jan 2016
Abstract: Habitats devoid of oxygen include the interior of the alimentary tracts of most mammals, the lower portions of many oligotrophic lakes, the sediment underlying bodies of water, and water logged soils. Water, the continuous phase in all these habitats, is chiefly responsible for the lack of O2. One ml of water equilibrated with air contains only about 8 /il of O2, compared to 210 ?l 02/ml of air. This oxygen is soon used by aerobic microbes if other suitable foods are available. Oxygen is re moved by metabolism as rapidly as it enters anaerobic habitats. Both euryoxic and anaerobic bacteria have evolved in these habitats. In most continuously anaerobic habitats obligate anaerobes are more a bundant than euryoxic types, possibly because the latter bear a burden of aerobic metabolic capacities unused in the anaerobic environment. Usual aerobic petri plates or similar containers are suitable to culture the euryoxic microbes, but most anaerobes fail to grow in the presence of air. The anaerobes can be classed as oxyduric, i.e. surviving exposure to O2 but not growing in its presence, and oxylabile Species, killed by exposure to O2. Many oxyduric anaerobes can be handled in much the same fashion as aerobes, except that after plates are streaked they must be incubated

1,252 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The isolation of M. jannaschii from a submarine hydrothermal vent provides additional evidence for biogenic production of CH4 from these deep-sea environments and a new species of the genus Methanococcus is proposed.
Abstract: A new extremely thermophilic methane-producing bacterium was isolated from a submarine hydrothermal vent sample collected by a research team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using the manned submersible ALVIN. The sample was obtained from the base of a “white smoker” chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 20° 50′ N latitude and 109° 06′ W longitude at a depth of 2600 m. The isolate was a motile irregular coccus with an osmotically fragile cell wall and a complex flagellar system. In defined medium with 80% H2 and 20% CO2, the isolate had a doubling time of 26 min at 85° C. The pH range for growth was 5.2 to 7.0 with an optimum near 6.0. NaCl was required for growth with an optimum of 2 to 3% (w/v). The mol % G+C was 31%. In cell-free extracts, methane formation from methylcoenzyme M was temperature-dependent, and H2 or formate served as electron donors. Methane formation from H2 and CO2 occurred at a much lower rate. Oligonucleotide cataloging of the 16S ribosomal RNA established the isolate as a new species of the genus Methanococcus and the name Methanococcus jannaschii is proposed. The isolation of M. jannaschii from a submarine hydrothermal vent provides additional evidence for biogenic production of CH4 from these deep-sea environments.

509 citations