Isozyme Variation in Some Economically Important Species of the Genus Allium L. (Alliaceae)
05 Jul 2013-Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 19, Iss: 3, pp 297-312
TL;DR: This study showed that isozyme was more helpful for studying phylogenetic relationships at the species level rather than at intraspecific level.
Abstract: Isozymes were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of selected species, varieties, and cultivars of Allium. Highest and lowest number of isozyme banding patterns was observed in Malate dehydrogenase and Malic enzyme, respectively. No intraspecific diversity was revealed within A. sativum and A. porrum. A. cepa showed some intraspecific diversity. Dendrogram showed close relationship among A. sativum and A. porrum. A. cepa was grouped with A. stracheyi and A. tuberosum. Principal coordinate analysis showed some differences with the dendrogram. This study showed that isozyme was more helpful for studying phylogenetic relationships at the species level rather than at intraspecific level.
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this aspect, mutational breeding and somatic hybridization are the potential approaches for the development of new high-yielding and disease-resistant cultivars.
Abstract: Spring onion (Allium fistulosum L.) belongs to subgenus Cepa, genus Allium and family Liliaceae and popularly known as scallion, Welsh onion and Japanese bunching onion. Cultivation of spring onion dates back to 200 BC in China and reached Japan before 500 AD which later spread to Southeast Asia. Spring onion is grown worldwide, however the main area of cultivation remains in East Asia from Siberia to tropical Asia including China, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The plant is a perennial herb, does not produce bulbs, and possesses hollow leaves and has traditionally been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat common cold, influenza, abdominal pain, headache and cardiovascular disease as well as having antifungal and antibacterial effects. Spring onion is known for its flavor and aroma and is a rich source of vitamin C, A and B6, thiamine, folate, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose. Production of F1 hybrids is considered as one of the main goals in crop breeding. The length of time taken is the main restriction in breeding programs as eight or more generations of inbreeding are needed to establish homozygous lines that can be applied in hybrid production. This process can be enhanced by using doubled haploid (DH) lines as components of hybrid cultivars. In this chapter, we give an overview of the origin, botanical classification, distribution, reported health benefits, genetic resource and conservation, crop cultivation practices and recent advances on biotechnology, and molecular biology and their application for crop improvement in connection with traditional breeding methods of spring onion. In this aspect, mutational breeding and somatic hybridization are the potential approaches for the development of new high-yielding and disease-resistant cultivars.
TL;DR: Investigation of genetic diversity and phenetic relationship among nine Bangladeshi cultivars of cucumber using some isozymes and protein profiling by SDS-PAGE revealed that the cultivars ‘Alavy-1, ‘Baromasse’, ’Raj-1’ and ‘Dinajpuri’ are somewhat more closely related than the other cultivars.
Abstract: The present research work has been carried out for investigation of genetic diversity and phenetic relationship among nine Bangladeshi cultivars of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using some isozymes and protein profiling by SDS-PAGE. Seventeen isozymes including acid phosphatase (ACP), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino peptidase (AMP), aspartate amino transferase (AAT), β-galactosidase (GAL), β-glucosidase (GLU), catalase (CAT), esterases (EST), formate dehydrogenase (FDH), fructose bisphosphatase (FBP), fumarate hydratase (FUM), hexokinase (HEX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH-NAD+), peroxidase (PRX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tyrosinase (TYR) were assayed. A total of 48 bands were detected resolved in 17 isozymes, out of which 21 were polymorphic. No polymorphism has been found in acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, formate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and peroxidase. A total of 23 protein bands were resolved, out of which 22 were polymorphic. Seven isozymes banding patterns were observed in Superoxide dismutase which was the highest among the 17 enzyme systems. Dendrograms and three-dimensional plots based on isozymes, SDS-PAGE and combined dataset clearly separated almost all the cultivars. From the phonetic analysis, it was revealed that the cultivars ‘Alavy-1’, ‘Baromasse’, ‘Raj-1’ and ‘Dinajpuri’ are somewhat more closely related than the other cultivars. The cultivar ‘Green king’ produced six cultivar specific bands in SDS-PAGE. This study will help successful breeding programmes in cucumber in Bangladesh.
TL;DR: Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.
Abstract: Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins, a number of modified analytical procedures utilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum, in antigen-antibody precipitates, and in insulin. Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sensitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard to effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of reactants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering substances. Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.
"Isozyme Variation in Some Economica..." refers methods in this paper
TL;DR: The technic to be given below for imparting statistical validity to the procedures already in vogue can be viewed as a generalized form of regression with possible useful application to problems arising in quite different contexts.
Abstract: The problem of identifying subtle time-space clustering of disease, as may be occurring in leukemia, is described and reviewed. Published approaches, generally associated with studies of leukemia, not dependent on knowledge of the underlying population for their validity, are directed towards identifying clustering by establishing a relationship between the temporal and the spatial separations for the n ( n - 1)/2 possible pairs which can be formed from the n observed cases of disease. Here it is proposed that statistical power can be improved by applying a reciprocal transform to these separations. While a permutational approach can give valid probability levels for any observed association, for reasons of practicability, it is suggested that the observed association be tested relative to its permutational variance. Formulas and computational procedures for doing so are given. While the distance measures between points represent symmetric relationships subject to mathematical and geometric regularities, the variance formula developed is appropriate for arbitrary relationships. Simplified procedures are given for the case of symmetric and skew-symmetric relationships. The general procedure is indicated as being potentially useful in other situations as, for example, the study of interpersonal relationships. Viewing the procedure as a regression approach, the possibility for extending it to nonlinear and multivariate situations is suggested. Other aspects of the problem and of the procedure developed are discussed. Similarly, pure temporal clustering can be identified by a study of incidence rates in periods of widespread epidemics. In point of fact, many epidemics of communicable diseases are somewhat local in nature and so these do actually constitute temporal-spatial clusters. For leukemia and similar diseases in which cases seem to arise substantially at random rather than as clear-cut epidemics, it is necessary to devise sensitive and efficient procedures for detecting any nonrandom component of disease occurrence. Various ingenious procedures which statisticians have developed for the detection of disease clustering are reviewed here. These procedures can be generalized so as to increase their statistical validity and efficiency. The technic to be given below for imparting statistical validity to the procedures already in vogue can be viewed as a generalized form of regression with possible useful application to problems arising in quite different contexts.
"Isozyme Variation in Some Economica..." refers methods in this paper