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Journal ArticleDOI

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries

15 Nov 2001-Nature (NATURE)-Vol. 414, Iss: 6861, pp 359-367

TL;DR: A brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries is presented, ongoing research strategies are highlighted, and the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems are discussed.
Abstract: Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Patrice Simon1, Patrice Simon2, Yury Gogotsi3Institutions (3)
01 Nov 2008-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This work has shown that combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries.
Abstract: Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

12,902 citations


Cites background from "Issues and challenges facing rechar..."

  • ...Lithium-ion batteries were introduced in 1990 by Sony, following pioneering work by Whittingham, Scrosati and Armand (see ref...

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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2011-Science
TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

8,906 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2005-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoeLECTrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors and the advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices.
Abstract: New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.

7,703 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2011-Nature Materials
TL;DR: The energy that can be stored in Li-air and Li-S cells is compared with Li-ion; the operation of the cells is discussed, as are the significant hurdles that will have to be overcome if such batteries are to succeed.
Abstract: Li-ion batteries have transformed portable electronics and will play a key role in the electrification of transport. However, the highest energy storage possible for Li-ion batteries is insufficient for the long-term needs of society, for example, extended-range electric vehicles. To go beyond the horizon of Li-ion batteries is a formidable challenge; there are few options. Here we consider two: Li-air (O(2)) and Li-S. The energy that can be stored in Li-air (based on aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes) and Li-S cells is compared with Li-ion; the operation of the cells is discussed, as are the significant hurdles that will have to be overcome if such batteries are to succeed. Fundamental scientific advances in understanding the reactions occurring in the cells as well as new materials are key to overcoming these obstacles. The potential benefits of Li-air and Li-S justify the continued research effort that will be needed.

6,805 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kang Xu1Institutions (1)
16 Sep 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The phytochemical properties of Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate and its Derivatives are as follows: 2.2.1.
Abstract: 2.1. Solvents 4307 2.1.1. Propylene Carbonate (PC) 4308 2.1.2. Ethers 4308 2.1.3. Ethylene Carbonate (EC) 4309 2.1.4. Linear Dialkyl Carbonates 4310 2.2. Lithium Salts 4310 2.2.1. Lithium Perchlorate (LiClO4) 4311 2.2.2. Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6) 4312 2.2.3. Lithium Tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) 4312 2.2.4. Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf) 4312 2.2.5. Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiIm) and Its Derivatives 4313

4,694 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Philippe Poizot1, S. Laruelle1, Sylvie Grugeon1, Loic Dupont1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
28 Sep 2000-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO), where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe, demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g-1, with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates.
Abstract: Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Although promising electrode systems have recently been proposed, their lifespans are limited by Li-alloying agglomeration or the growth of passivation layers, which prevent the fully reversible insertion of Li ions into the negative electrodes. Here we report that electrodes made of nanoparticles of transition-metal oxides (MO, where M is Co, Ni, Cu or Fe) demonstrate electrochemical capacities of 700 mA h g(-1), with 100% capacity retention for up to 100 cycles and high recharging rates. The mechanism of Li reactivity differs from the classical Li insertion/deinsertion or Li-alloying processes, and involves the formation and decomposition of Li2O, accompanying the reduction and oxidation of metal nanoparticles (in the range 1-5 nanometres) respectively. We expect that the use of transition-metal nanoparticles to enhance surface electrochemical reactivity will lead to further improvements in the performance of lithium-ion batteries.

6,998 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new system LixCoO2 (0 Li x CoO 2 Li . Preliminary voltage-composition curves show low overvoltages and good reversibility for current densities up to 4 mA cm−2 over a large range of x.

2,574 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1998-Nature
Abstract: Ionically conducting polymer membranes (polymer electrolytes) might enhance lithium-battery technology by replacing the liquid electrolyte currently in use and thereby enabling the fabrication of flexible, compact, laminated solid-state structures free from leaks and available in varied geometries1. Polymer electrolytes explored for these purposes are commonly complexes of a lithium salt (LiX) with a high-molecular-weight polymer such as polyethylene oxide (PEO). But PEO tends to crystallize below 60 °C, whereas fast ion transport is a characteristic of the amorphous phase. So the conductivity of PEO–LiX electrolytes reaches practically useful values (of about 10−4 S cm−1) only at temperatures of 60–80 °C. The most common approach for lowering the operational temperature has been to add liquid plasticizers, but this promotes deterioration of the electrolyte's mechanical properties and increases its reactivity towards the lithium metal anode. Here we show that nanometre-sized ceramic powders can perform as solid plasticizers for PEO, kinetically inhibiting crystallization on annealing from the amorphous state above 60 °C. We demonstrate conductivities of around 10−4 S cm−1 at 50 °C and 10−5 S cm−1 at 30 °C in a PEO–LiClO4 mixture containing powders of TiO2 and Al2O3 with particle sizes of 5.8–13 nm. Further optimization might lead to practical solid-state polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries.

2,420 citations


"Issues and challenges facing rechar..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The addition of nanoparticle fillers (10% w/w), such as Al 2 O 3 or TiO 2 , to simple PEO compounds increases the conductivity several-fold at 60–80 °C, and prevents crystallization for at least several weeks at room temperatur...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
30 May 1997-Science
Abstract: A high-capacity lithium-storage material in metal-oxide form has been synthesized that can replace the carbon-based lithium intercalation materials currently in extensive use as the negative electrode (anode) of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. This tin-based amorphous composite oxide (TCO) contains Sn(II)-O as the active center for lithium insertion and other glass-forming elements, which make up an oxide network. The TCO anode yields a specific capacity for reversible lithium adsorption more than 50 percent higher than those of the carbon families that persists after charge-discharge cycling when coupled with a lithium cobalt oxide cathode. Lithium-7 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements evidenced the high ionic state of lithium retained in the charged state, in which TCO accepted 8 moles of lithium ions per unit mole.

2,388 citations


"Issues and challenges facing rechar..." refers background in this paper

  • ...5 V, and has a specific capacity twice that of graphit...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1973-Polymer

1,851 citations


"Issues and challenges facing rechar..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Nevertheless, a principal goal has been to search for new, highly conductive salts with a large electrochemical window, which form a eutectic composition with PEO that melts at the lowest possible temperatur...

    [...]


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20191,575
20181,483
20171,589