scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Issues in training the female player

15 May 2007-British Journal of Sports Medicine (BMJ Group)-Vol. 41

TL;DR: Although it is unrealistic to expect the women’s game to approach the work output of the men’S game, specific training of skills and fitness will influence the tactical approach to the game.

AbstractOn the surface, the women's game appears to be similar to the men's game. On closer examination, there are subtle differences in the nature of how each gender plays the game, which are evident in the disparity between skills, tactics and fitness. The technical weaknesses of women include the first touch, dribbling, long passing and goal keeping. These skill limitations have dictated specific tactical approaches towards both attack and defence. Specific biological limitations inherent in the female player affect the pace and total work output in the women's game. Although it is unrealistic to expect the women's game to approach the work output of the men's game, specific training of skills and fitness will influence the tactical approach to the game.

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review critically appraises various motion analysis methods currently employed in elite soccer and explores research conducted using these methods, identifying areas that require further exploration and identifying practical implications of the established body of knowledge.
Abstract: The optimal physical preparation of elite soccer (association football) players has become an indispensable part of the professional game, especially due to the increased physical demands of match-play. The monitoring of players' work rate profiles during competition is now feasible through computer-aided motion analysis. Traditional methods of motion analysis were extremely labour intensive and were largely restricted to university-based research projects. Recent technological developments have meant that sophisticated systems, capable of quickly recording and processing the data of all players' physical contributions throughout an entire match, are now being used in elite club environments. In recognition of the important role that motion analysis now plays as a tool for measuring the physical performance of soccer players, this review critically appraises various motion analysis methods currently employed in elite soccer and explores research conducted using these methods. This review therefore aims to increase the awareness of both practitioners and researchers of the various motion analysis systems available, and identify practical implications of the established body of knowledge, while highlighting areas that require further exploration.

452 citations


Cites background from "Issues in training the female playe..."

  • ...or lost on successful attempts at scoring carried out at high speed.([71]) The high-intensity category of...

    [...]

  • ...Research on female performance has shown that these players spend more time in lower intensity activities compared with males, which may be explained by biological differences such as endurance capacity.([71]) In soccer, activities at lower levels of intensity...

    [...]


01 Jan 2008
Abstract: The optimal physical preparation of elite soccer (association football) players has become an indispensable part of the professional game, especially due to the increased physical demands of match-play. The monitoring of players’ work rate profiles during competition is now feasible through computer-aided motion analysis. Traditional methods of motion analysis were extremely labour intensive and were largely restricted to university-based research projects. Recent technological developments have meant that sophisticated systems, capable of quickly recording and processing the data of all players’ physical contributions throughout an entire match, are now being used in elite club environments. In recognition of the important role that motion analysis now plays as a tool for measuring the physical performance of soccer players, this review critically appraises various motion analysis methods currently employed in elite soccer and explores research REVIEW ARTICLE

240 citations


01 Jan 2004
Abstract: We compared the efficacy of three physical conditioning programmes provided over a 12 week period (24 h in total) on selected anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in female soccer players. Two of the groups received physical conditioning training in accordance with speed, agility and quickness (SAQ); one group used specialized resistance and speed development SAQ equipment (equipment group; n = 12), while the other group used traditional soccer coaching equipment (non-equipment group; n = 12). A third group received their regular fitness sessions (active control group; n = 12). All three interventions decreased (P <0.001) the participants' body mass index (−3.7%) and fat percentage (−1.7%), and increased their flexibility (+14.7%) and maximal aerobic capacity ([Vdot]O2max) (+18.4%). The participants in the equipment and non-equipment conditioning groups showed significantly (P <0.005) greater benefits from their training programme than those in the active control group by performing significantly better on the sprint to fatigue (−11.6% for both the equipment and non-equipment groups versus −6.2% for the active control group), 25 m sprint (−4.4% vs −0.7%), left (−4.5% vs −1.0%) and right (−4.0% vs −1.4%) side agility, and vertical (+18.5% vs +4.8%) and horizontal (+7.7% vs +1.6%) power tests. Some of these differences in improvements in physical fitness between the equipment and non-equipment conditioning groups on the one hand and the active control group on the other hand were probably due to the specificity of the training programmes. It was concluded that SAQ training principles appear to be effective in the physical conditioning of female soccer players. Moreover, these principles can be implemented during whole team training sessions without the need for specialized SAQ equipment. Finally, more research is required to establish the relationship between physical fitness and soccer performance as well as the principles underlying the improvements seen through the implementation of SAQ training programmes.

111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This program significantly improved lower limb alignment on a drop-jump test and estimated maximal aerobic power and may be implemented preseason or off-season in high school female basketball players.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school soccer players. We combined components from a published knee ligament intervention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic fitness. We hypothesized that this program would significantly improve neuromuscular and athletic performance indices in high school female soccer players. The supervised 6-week program was done 3 d·wk(-1) for 90-120 minutes per session on the soccer fields and weight room facilities in area high schools. In phase 1, 62 athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, t-test, 2 vertical jump tests, and a 37-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. In phase 2, 62 other athletes underwent a multistage fitness test before and after training. There were significant improvements in the mean absolute knee separation distance (p < 0.0001), mean absolute ankle separation distance (p < 0.0001), and mean normalized knee separation distance (p < 0.0001) on the drop-jump, indicating a more neutral lower limb alignment on landing. Significant improvements were found in the t-test (p < 0.0001), estimated maximal aerobic power (p < 0.0001), 37-m sprint test (p = 0.02), and in the 2-step approach vertical jump test (p = 0.04). This is the first study we are aware of that demonstrated the effectiveness of a knee ligament injury prevention training program in improving athletic performance indices in high school female soccer players. Future studies will determine if these findings improve athlete compliance and team participation in knee ligament injury intervention training.

102 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The number of scientific investigations on women's football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game has considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women's game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men's football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women's football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review was more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12–27 years), body height (155–174 cm), body mass (48–72 kg), percent body fat (13%–29%), maximal oxygen uptake (45.1–55.5 mL/kg/min), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780–1379 m), maximum heart rate (189–202 bpm), 30 m sprint times (4.34–4.96 s), and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28–50 cm) vary mostly according to the players' competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries) and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia) that may affect players' football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance covered (4–13 km), distance covered at high-speed (0.2–1.7 km), average/peak heart rate (74%–87%/94%–99% HR max ), average/peak oxygen uptake (52%–77%/96%–98% VO 2max ), and blood lactate (2.2–7.3 mmol/L) during women's football match-play vary according to the players' competitive level and positional role. Methodological differences may account for the discrepancy of the reported values as well. Finally, this review also aims to identify literature gaps that require further scientific research in women's football and to derive a few practical recommendations. The information presented in this report provides an objective point of reference about player characteristics and game demands at various levels of women's football, which can help coaches and sport scientists to design more effective training programs and science-based strategies for the further improvement of players' football performance, health, game standards, and positive image of this sport.

60 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Top-class soccer players performed more high-intensity running during a game and were better at the Yo-Yo test than moderate professional players; fatigue occurred towards the end of matches as well as temporarily during the game, independently of competitive standard and of team position; defenders covered a shorter distance in high- intensity running than players in other playing positions.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess physical fitness, match performance and development of fatigue during competitive matches at two high standards of professional soccer. Computerized time-motion analyses were performed 2-7 times during the competitive season on 18 top-class and 24 moderate professional soccer players. In addition, the players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. The top-class players performed 28 and 58% more (P < 0.05) high-intensity running and sprinting, respectively, than the moderate players (2.43 +/- 0.14 vs 1.90 +/- 0.12 km and 0.65 +/- 0.06 vs 0.41 +/- 0.03 km, respectively). The top-class players were better (11%; P < 0.05) on the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test than the moderate players (2.26 +/- 0.08 vs 2.04 +/- 0.06 km, respectively). The amount of high-intensity running, independent of competitive standard and playing position, was lower (35-45%; P < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15 min of the game. After the 5-min period during which the amount of high-intensity running peaked, performance was reduced (P < 0.05) by 12% in the following 5 min compared with the game average. Substitute players (n = 13) covered 25% more (P < 0.05) ground during the final 15 min of high-intensity running than the other players. The coefficient of variation in high-intensity running was 9.2% between successive matches, whereas it was 24.8% between different stages of the season. Total distance covered and the distance covered in high-intensity running were higher (P < 0.05) for midfield players, full-backs and attackers than for defenders. Attackers and full-backs covered a greater (P < 0.05) distance in sprinting than midfield players and defenders. The midfield players and full-backs covered a greater (P < 0.05) distance than attackers and defenders in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (2.23 +/- 0.10 and 2.21 +/- 0.04 vs 1.99 +/- 0.11 and 1.91 +/- 0.12 km, respectively). The results show that: (1) top-class soccer players performed more high-intensity running during a game and were better at the Yo-Yo test than moderate professional players; (2) fatigue occurred towards the end of matches as well as temporarily during the game, independently of competitive standard and of team position; (3) defenders covered a shorter distance in high-intensity running than players in other playing positions; (4) defenders and attackers had a poorer Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance than midfielders and full-backs; and (5) large seasonal changes were observed in physical performance during matches.

1,697 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that all players have high HR throughout a competitive game with periods of near-maximal values, the distance covered by HIR during match play is closely related to the physical capacity, and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test can be used as an indicator of the physical match performance of elite female players.
Abstract: Purpose:To examine the activity profile and physical loading of elite female soccer players during match play and to study the relationship between training status and physical match performance.Methods:Time-motion analysis and HR recordings were performed on 14 elite female soccer players d

554 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1968

244 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is considerable variation in the number of matches played per season in European professional football leagues, and top level players are obliged to play many matches especially during the final period of the season.
Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performa ...

182 citations