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Journal ArticleDOI

Jihad in Islam

01 Dec 2012-Global Journal Al-Thaqafah (Universiti Sultan Azlan Shah)-Vol. 2, Iss: 2, pp 7-15

AbstractThe word Islam as a verbal form is derived from the infinitive Arabic trilateral root of silm, salamet (peace and security). Therefore, if its nature has been peace and salvation, how can we interpret Jihad verses? The subject of this article focuses on this point. In this article, the writer discusses the subject and the impact of this apparent paradox on the direction of Islam according to Quranic verses. The interpretation of Jihad that the writer intends to explore best fits the religion which in its nature is peace and

Topics: Islam (51%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Islam is a religion, but it is also a philosophy. An analysis of surveys in the Arab world, Indonesia and Pakistan reveals that the mission and values of journalists in those Muslim-majority region...

41 citations


Cites background from "Jihad in Islam"

  • ...(Maududi, 1939: 6) In her study of Indonesian and Malaysian journalists, Steele concluded that justice is ‘the overarching ideology of journalism in the majority Muslim countries of Southeast Asia’ (2011: 537)....

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01 Jan 2018
Abstract: This dissertation studies a unique subset of legal obligations in Islamic law known as “collective duties” (farḍ kifāya) and focuses on juristic writing in the premodern period between the 9th and 14th centuries C.E. Together with the more widely recognized “individual obligations” (farḍ ʿayn), these duties encompass the complete range of mandated behavior in Islamic law. Individual obligations follow a simple pattern: one person is assigned responsibility for performing a particular act and is solely held responsible if they fail to do so. Collective duties are premised on a different concept involving shared responsibility for required acts. They are based on a formula consisting of two clauses, which loosely draws from a Qurʾānic prooftext. The first clause states that as long as some people perform the duty, then the obligation is suspended for everyone else. While everyone initially carries the burden, they are not all required to perform. However, the second clause adds an important warning: if no one performs the duty, then everyone is held accountable. This study explores the juristic discourse on collective duties in order to better understand how they function, what purpose they serve and why they might have been created. As premodern jurists explored the implications of collective duties as a whole, they developed the theoretical outlines of a kifāya-doctrine, one that asked questions of whether collective duties were preferred to individual obligations, who in the collective was required to perform and when an obligation was suspended. Beyond the general doctrine, the dissertation also examines legal rules developed for three specific collective duties: jihād, funerary rites and duties to rescue. The discourse on these duties demonstrates how jurists not only provided practical guidance for performance of the obligation, but also thought more broadly about the theoretical implications for law. In the process, they began to determine who belongs in the moral community, defined a robust role for the state in law’s implementation and speculated on what should constitute ethical behavior. As a result, they made clear that the normative universe of obligation is essential to understanding the Islamic legal tradition. Degree Type Dissertation Degree Name Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Graduate Group Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations First Advisor Joseph E. Lowry

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Qualitative analysis revealed four themes that highlight the challenges faced by Muslims as well as their resiliency in the face of microaggressions and marginalization.
Abstract: This mixed methods exploratory study illustrates the influence of pervasive misconceptions about Islam on the experiences of 314 adult Muslims across the United States. Quantitative results suggest that Muslim stress levels are comparable to the stress levels of other marginalized groups in the United States. Qualitative analysis revealed four themes that highlight the challenges faced by Muslims as well as their resiliency in the face of microaggressions and marginalization. Family therapists may utilize these personal accounts to expand their understanding of Muslim experiences, and to reflect on their own implicit biases toward Muslims in order to reduce chances of premature termination. Clinical implications include using resiliency-based models and creating collaborative partnerships with community leaders when working with this religious minority group.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many Malaysian mak nyahs, or male-to-female transsexuals, undergo tremendous discrimination and persecution in variousaspectsoftheirlives.Thisisdue to their liminal identities and their involvement in sex work in Malaysia, a predominantly Muslim country that actively engages in moral policing. In this essay, I expand the notion of queer Christian theologizing by examining both the Muslim and Christian contexts in Malaysia, and pose the question of how queer theological instruments can challenge antagonistic attitudes towards mak nyahs. I discuss alternative theological models of Mary and mak nyahs by privileging the work of Marcella Althaus-Reid, as well as using findings from face-to-face, in-depth interviews with mak nyahs, and scriptural imageries in Quran 3: 42, 47; 19: 16–22/Luke 1: 26–38 in which Mary acquiesces to a divine invitation. In so doing, I strive to engage in a concomitant theological imagining of Mary and mak nyahs in hopes of providing an alternative and constructive perspective on mak nyahs.

9 citations


DOI
01 Jan 2015
Abstract: Islam, the youngest of the three Semitic religions in the world today, is the fastest growing religion on earth. As a result, it faces a lot of criticism and blackmail directed at its adherents as well as renowned Muslims. The Islamic view on “shariah” (divine law), “hijab” (headscarf), polygamy, and, above all, “jihad”, are erroneously and mischievously translated by some non-Muslims historians. “Jihad” to them is nothing but war, terrorism, assassination, and using the sword’s edge to convert non-Muslims to Islam. This paper intends to analyze the historical perspectives of “jihad”, the concept, justifications, and the methods of recruitment of soldiers in “jihad”. It also analyses the Islamic instructions for Muslims in war front and the treatment of Islamic prisoners of war. The method of approach is purely from written sources, which comprise of documents, monographs, manuscripts, books, journals as well as magazines. The study reveals that those wars fought by the Muslims were for their own protection and that of the faith. Likewise, the issue of forceful conversion to Islam, either by the edge of the sword or barrel of a gun, as often ranted by some non-Muslim historians, holds no ground in Islam. The paper, therefore, recommended that one should look into the early history of Islam and see that it was the Muslims that were cheated, humiliated, banished, and their properties were confiscated. The paper concluded that the assertion of some non-Muslims that Islam spread through violence, and people were forced to either accept Islam or die by sword is not only untrue but also baseless. KEY WORDS: Islam, concept of “jihad”, faith, Islamic instruction, non-Muslims historian, fundamentalists, conversion, terrorism, and misperceptions on Islam. About the Author: Kamaldeen Olawale Sulaiman, Ph.D. is a Lecturer at the Department of Religious Studies ESU (Ekiti State University) in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via phone at: +2348068298472 or via e-mail at: drsulaimanko@yahoo.com How to cite this article? Sulaiman, Kamaldeen Olawale. (2015). “The Concept of Jihad in Islam: An Historical Perspective” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies , Vol.7(1) October, pp.111-120. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press, ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (February 23, 2015); Revised (June 1, 2015); and Published (October 28, 2015).

8 citations


Cites background from "Jihad in Islam"

  • ...Even, according to A.A. Moududi (1979) and K.O. Sulaiman (2014c), Western scholars have repudiated the myth of Muslims coercing others to convert (Moududi, 1979; and Sulaiman, 2014c:368-387)....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1996
Abstract: This work demonstrates that the notion of jihad (Holy War) is very much alive in the Islamic world, and plays a prominent political role. It shows how Islamicists emphasize jihad as a crusade against drugs and other societal scourges. Six translated Islamic texts are presented.

94 citations


01 Jan 1948

62 citations