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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Joint Base Station-IRS-User Association in Multi-IRS-Aided Wireless Network

01 Dec 2020-pp 1-6
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors considered the general wireless network consisting of multiple base stations, users and RISs, and investigated their joint association optimization in the downlink communication, where each RIS assists in the communication from its associated BS to user and in the meanwhile randomly scatters the signals from the other non-associated BSs.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is a revolutionizing approach for achieving low-cost yet spectral and energy efficient wireless communications. By properly tuning its massive reflecting elements, IRS is able to construct favorable channels and thereby significantly improve the wireless communication performance in various setups. In this paper, we consider the general wireless network consisting of multiple base stations (BSs), users and IRSs, and investigate their joint association optimization in the downlink communication. Specifically, each IRS assists in the communication from its associated BS to user and in the meanwhile randomly scatters the signals from the other non-associated BSs. As such, the joint BS-IRS-user association is more involved as compared to the BS-user association in conventional wireless networks without IRS. To address this new problem, we first derive the average signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of each user in closed-form and then formulate the joint association problem to maximize the users' utility in the downlink communication. Both the optimal and low-complexity suboptimal solutions are proposed for the formulated problem. Numerical results demonstrate significant performance gains of the proposed solutions over benchmark schemes.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To solve the two SINR balancing problems that are both non-convex optimization problems, this paper proposes an optimal solution to the problem with BS power control and low-complexity suboptimal solutions to both problems by applying the branch-and-bound method and exploiting new properties of the IRS-user associations, respectively.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is deemed as a promising solution to improve the spectral and energy efficiency of wireless communications cost-effectively. In this paper, we consider a wireless network where multiple base stations (BSs) serve their respective users with the aid of distributed IRSs in the downlink communication. Specifically, each IRS assists in the transmission from its associated BS to user via passive beamforming, while in the meantime, it also randomly scatters the signals from other co-channel BSs, thus resulting in additional signal as well as interference paths in the network. As such, a new IRS-user/BS association problem arises pertaining to optimally balance the passive beamforming gains from all IRSs among different BS-user communication links. To address this new problem, we first derive a tractable lower bound of the average signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the receiver of each user, termed average-signal-to-average-interference-plus-noise ratio (ASAINR), based on which two ASAINR balancing problems are formulated to maximize the minimum ASAINR among all users by optimizing the IRS-user associations without and with BS transmit power control, respectively. We also characterize the scaling behavior of user ASAINRs with the increasing number of IRS reflecting elements to investigate the different effects of IRS-reflected signal versus interference power. Moreover, to solve the two ASAINR balancing problems that are both non-convex optimization problems, we propose an optimal solution to the problem without BS power control and low-complexity suboptimal solutions to both problems by applying the branch-and-bound method and exploiting new properties of the IRS-user associations, respectively. Numerical results verify our performance analysis and also demonstrate significant performance gains of the proposed solutions over benchmark schemes.

64 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Considering the impact of RIS on user association in multi-BS mmWave systems, a sum rate maximization problem was formulated in this paper by jointly optimizing passive beamforming at RIS, power allocation and user association.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is a potential technology to build programmable wireless environment in future communication systems. In this paper, we consider a multi-IRS-assisted multi-base station (multi-BS) multi-user millimeter wave (mmWave) downlink communication system, exploiting IRS to extend mmWave signal coverage to blind spots. Considering the impact of IRS on user association in multi-BS mmWave systems, we formulate a sum rate maximization problem by jointly optimizing passive beamforming at IRS, power allocation and user association. This leads to an intractable non-convex problem, for which to tackle we propose a computationally affordable iterative algorithm, capitalizing on alternating optimization, sequential fractional programming (SFP) and forward-reverse auction (FRA). In particular, passive beamforming at IRS is optimized by utilizing the SFP method, power allocation is solved through means of standard convex optimization method, and user association is handled by the network optimization based FRA algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve significant performance gains, e.g., it can provide up to 147% higher sum rate compared with the benchmark and 116% higher energy efficiency compared with amplify-and-forward relay.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This letter considers a network-assisted intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) technology and proposes an efficient algorithm for the considered scenario based on the successive convex approximation (SCA) and a tight approximation to solve the passive beamforming at the IRS.
Abstract: This letter considers a network-assisted intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) technology. We aim to adopt an energy-efficient strategy via an antenna selection (AS) framework that determines which base station (BS) antennas transmit the data to the user equipment. In particular, we select the best set of antennas to increase energy efficiency (EE) while reducing power consumption. Also, the network takes advantage of the IRS system to increase the coverage and overall throughput of the network. We first propose an efficient algorithm for the considered scenario based on the successive convex approximation (SCA). Then we employ the Dinkelbach method that jointly selects the best set of antennas and optimizes their beamforming. Second, by introducing the slack variable and SCA method, we propose a tight approximation to solve the passive beamforming at the IRS. Simulation results unveil the performance of the proposed method and its influence on the power consumption at each antenna’s RF chain.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a wideband DFRC system that comprises multiple IRSs and a dual-function base station that jointly processes the LoS and NLoS wideband multi-carrier signals to extract communications symbols and moving target parameters in the presence of clutter.
Abstract: —Intelligence reflecting surface (IRS) is recognized as the enabler of future dual-function radar-communications (DFRC) for im-proving spectral efficiency, coverage, parameter estimation, and in- terference suppression. Prior studies on IRS-aided DFRC focus on either narrowband processing, single-IRS deployment, static targets, non-clutter scenario, or under-utilized line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) paths. In this paper, we address the aforementioned shortcomings by optimizing a wideband DFRC system that comprises multiple IRSs and a dual-function base station that jointly processes the LoS and NLoS wideband multi-carrier signals to extract communications symbols and moving target parameters in the presence of clutter. We formulate the transmit and IRS beamformer design as the maximization of the worst-case radar signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) subject to transmit power and communications SINR. We tackle this nonconvex problem under the alternating optimization framework, where the subproblems are solved by a combination of Dinkelbach algorithm, consensus alternating direction method of multipliers, and Riemannian steepest decent. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed multi-IRS-aided wideband DFRC provides over 6 dB radar SINR and 40 % improvement in target detection over a single-IRS system. multiple IRSs to assist a wideband system. In particular, we employ orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform to detect a moving target and with multiple users. We devise a Doppler filter bank against an Doppler shift at the radar receiver. We show that by properly designing the transmit beamforming, phase-shift matrix, and Doppler filter-bank, we maximize the average radar SINR over all subcarriers while ensuring that the average SINR among all users is greater than a predetermined threshold, thus guaranteeing the communications QoS.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors considered a hybrid aerial full-duplex (FD) relaying protocol consisting of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) mounted over an FD unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay operating in the decode and forward mode to assist the information transfer between the base station and multiple users.
Abstract: In this work, we consider a hybrid aerial full-duplex (FD) relaying protocol consisting of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) mounted over an FD unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relay operating in the decode and forward mode to assist the information transfer between the base station and multiple users. For better spectral efficiency, we investigate the use of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in such networks and focus on both the performance analysis and design optimization of the considered RIS-NOMA network under imperfect channel state information (CSI) and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at each user, and residual-self interference (RSI) at UAV. We first formulate the sum rate maximization problem and adopt the block coordinate descent method to deal with the non-convex nature of the problem. Thereafter, we propose an algorithm based on the Riemannian conjugate gradient method to get the optimal phase shifts at the RIS, an iterative algorithm to obtain the optimal UAV/RIS position and the exhaustive method to obtain the optimum power allocation coefficients. Next, with obtained optimal position, phase shift and power coefficients, we further analyze the performance of the network and derive the closed-form expressions of outage probability, achievable throughput and ergodic capacity. We present Monte Carlo simulation-based results to validate the accuracy of the proposed algorithms and derived expressions and demonstrate the superiority of NOMA over OMA.

8 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation results demonstrate that an IRS-aided single-cell wireless system can achieve the same rate performance as a benchmark massive MIMO system without using IRS, but with significantly reduced active antennas/RF chains.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is a revolutionary and transformative technology for achieving spectrum and energy efficient wireless communication cost-effectively in the future. Specifically, an IRS consists of a large number of low-cost passive elements each being able to reflect the incident signal independently with an adjustable phase shift so as to collaboratively achieve three-dimensional (3D) passive beamforming without the need of any transmit radio-frequency (RF) chains. In this paper, we study an IRS-aided single-cell wireless system where one IRS is deployed to assist in the communications between a multi-antenna access point (AP) and multiple single-antenna users. We formulate and solve new problems to minimize the total transmit power at the AP by jointly optimizing the transmit beamforming by active antenna array at the AP and reflect beamforming by passive phase shifters at the IRS, subject to users’ individual signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraints. Moreover, we analyze the asymptotic performance of IRS’s passive beamforming with infinitely large number of reflecting elements and compare it to that of the traditional active beamforming/relaying. Simulation results demonstrate that an IRS-aided MIMO system can achieve the same rate performance as a benchmark massive MIMO system without using IRS, but with significantly reduced active antennas/RF chains. We also draw useful insights into optimally deploying IRS in future wireless systems.

3,045 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a detailed overview and historical perspective on state-of-the-art solutions, and elaborate on the fundamental differences with other technologies, the most important open research issues to tackle, and the reasons why the use of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces necessitates to rethink the communication-theoretic models currently employed in wireless networks.
Abstract: The future of mobile communications looks exciting with the potential new use cases and challenging requirements of future 6th generation (6G) and beyond wireless networks. Since the beginning of the modern era of wireless communications, the propagation medium has been perceived as a randomly behaving entity between the transmitter and the receiver, which degrades the quality of the received signal due to the uncontrollable interactions of the transmitted radio waves with the surrounding objects. The recent advent of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces in wireless communications enables, on the other hand, network operators to control the scattering, reflection, and refraction characteristics of the radio waves, by overcoming the negative effects of natural wireless propagation. Recent results have revealed that reconfigurable intelligent surfaces can effectively control the wavefront, e.g., the phase, amplitude, frequency, and even polarization, of the impinging signals without the need of complex decoding, encoding, and radio frequency processing operations. Motivated by the potential of this emerging technology, the present article is aimed to provide the readers with a detailed overview and historical perspective on state-of-the-art solutions, and to elaborate on the fundamental differences with other technologies, the most important open research issues to tackle, and the reasons why the use of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces necessitates to rethink the communication-theoretic models currently employed in wireless networks. This article also explores theoretical performance limits of reconfigurable intelligent surface-assisted communication systems using mathematical techniques and elaborates on the potential use cases of intelligent surfaces in 6G and beyond wireless networks.

2,021 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the IRS technology, including its main applications in wireless communication, competitive advantages over existing technologies, hardware architecture as well as the corresponding new signal model.
Abstract: IRS is a new and revolutionizing technology that is able to significantly improve the performance of wireless communication networks, by smartly reconfiguring the wireless propagation environment with the use of massive low-cost passive reflecting elements integrated on a planar surface. Specifically, different elements of an IRS can independently reflect the incident signal by controlling its amplitude and/or phase and thereby collaboratively achieve fine-grained 3D passive beamforming for directional signal enhancement or nulling. In this article, we first provide an overview of the IRS technology, including its main applications in wireless communication, competitive advantages over existing technologies, hardware architecture as well as the corresponding new signal model. We then address the key challenges in designing and implementing the new IRS-aided hybrid (with both active and passive components) wireless network, as compared to the traditional network comprising active components only. Finally, numerical results are provided to show the great performance enhancement with the use of IRS in typical wireless networks.

1,897 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes to invoke an IRS at the cell boundary of multiple cells to assist the downlink transmission to cell-edge users, whilst mitigating the inter-cell interference, which is a crucial issue in multicell communication systems.
Abstract: Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) constitute a disruptive wireless communication technique capable of creating a controllable propagation environment. In this paper, we propose to invoke an IRS at the cell boundary of multiple cells to assist the downlink transmission to cell-edge users, whilst mitigating the inter-cell interference, which is a crucial issue in multicell communication systems. We aim for maximizing the weighted sum rate (WSR) of all users through jointly optimizing the active precoding matrices at the base stations (BSs) and the phase shifts at the IRS subject to each BS’s power constraint and unit modulus constraint. Both the BSs and the users are equipped with multiple antennas, which enhances the spectral efficiency by exploiting the spatial multiplexing gain. Due to the non-convexity of the problem, we first reformulate it into an equivalent one, which is solved by using the block coordinate descent (BCD) algorithm, where the precoding matrices and phase shifts are alternately optimized. The optimal precoding matrices can be obtained in closed form, when fixing the phase shifts. A pair of efficient algorithms are proposed for solving the phase shift optimization problem, namely the Majorization-Minimization (MM) Algorithm and the Complex Circle Manifold (CCM) Method. Both algorithms are guaranteed to converge to at least locally optimal solutions. We also extend the proposed algorithms to the more general multiple-IRS and network MIMO scenarios. Finally, our simulation results confirm the advantages of introducing IRSs in enhancing the cell-edge user performance.

865 citations

MonographDOI
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: This book provides a comprehensive treatment of assignment problems from their conceptual beginnings in the 1920s through present-day theoretical, algorithmic, and practical developments and can serve as a text for advanced courses in discrete mathematics, integer programming, combinatorial optimization, and algorithmic computer science.
Abstract: This book provides a comprehensive treatment of assignment problems from their conceptual beginnings in the 1920s through present-day theoretical, algorithmic, and practical developments. The authors have organized the book into 10 self-contained chapters to make it easy for readers to use the specific chapters of interest to them without having to read the book linearly. The topics covered include bipartite matching algorithms, linear assignment problems, quadratic assignment problems, multi-index assignment problems, and many variations of these problems. Exercises in the form of numerical examples provide readers with a method of self-study or students with homework problems, and an associated webpage offers applets that readers can use to execute some of the basic algorithms as well as links to computer codes that are available online. Audience: Assignment Problems is a useful tool for researchers, practitioners, and graduate students. Researchers will benefit from the detailed exposition of theory and algorithms related to assignment problems, including the basic linear sum assignment problem and its many variations. Practitioners will learn about practical applications of the methods, the performance of exact and heuristic algorithms, and software options. This book also can serve as a text for advanced courses in discrete mathematics, integer programming, combinatorial optimization, and algorithmic computer science. Contents: Preface; Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Theoretical Foundations; Chapter 3: Bipartite Matching Algorithms; Chapter 4: Linear Sum Assignment Problem; Chapter 5: Further Results on the Linear Sum Assignment Problem; Chapter 6: Other Types of Linear Assignment Problems; Chapter 7: Quadratic Assignment Problems: Formulations and Bounds; Chapter 8: Quadratic Assignment Problems: Algorithms; Chapter 9: Other Types of Quadratic Assignment Problems; Chapter 10: Multi-index Assignment Problems; Bibliography; Author Index; Subject Index

865 citations