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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Joint Power Allocation and Dynamic Cluster Selection in Cell-Free Wireless Networks

01 Mar 2023-
TL;DR: In this paper , the uplink power and the dynamic clusters in a cell-free wireless network were jointly optimized to achieve spectral efficiency targets for users in a scalable and efficient manner, where the authors re-purpose a classic iterative algorithm and theoretically prove its convergence to their objectives.
Abstract: Cell-free wireless networks have gained the interest of the research community in recent years due to their potential to provide good quality of service (QoS) to all users. However, this comes at the cost of complex signal processing and high computational demands from the network to actively suppress inter-user interference. In this paper, we undertake joint optimization of the uplink power and the dynamic clusters in a cell-free wireless network to achieve spectral efficiency targets for users in a scalable and efficient manner. To this end, we re-purpose a classic iterative algorithm and theoretically prove its convergence to our objectives. We introduce various base station (BS) subset selection schemes and study their performance, establishing a trade-off between the performance and computational cost of the algorithm while facilitating a distributed operation. The numerical results convey the favorable impact of allowing variable cluster size in a system that employs maximal ratio combining (MRC).
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Thomas L. Marzetta1
TL;DR: A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval and a complete multi-cellular analysis yields a number of mathematically exact conclusions and points to a desirable direction towards which cellular wireless could evolve.
Abstract: A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval. Time-division duplex operation combined with reverse-link pilots enables the base station to estimate the reciprocal forward- and reverse-link channels. The conjugate-transpose of the channel estimates are used as a linear precoder and combiner respectively on the forward and reverse links. Propagation, unknown to both terminals and base station, comprises fast fading, log-normal shadow fading, and geometric attenuation. In the limit of an infinite number of antennas a complete multi-cellular analysis, which accounts for inter-cellular interference and the overhead and errors associated with channel-state information, yields a number of mathematically exact conclusions and points to a desirable direction towards which cellular wireless could evolve. In particular the effects of uncorrelated noise and fast fading vanish, throughput and the number of terminals are independent of the size of the cells, spectral efficiency is independent of bandwidth, and the required transmitted energy per bit vanishes. The only remaining impairment is inter-cellular interference caused by re-use of the pilot sequences in other cells (pilot contamination) which does not vanish with unlimited number of antennas.

6,248 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Roy D. Yates1
TL;DR: It is shown that systems in which transmitter powers are subject to maximum power limitations share these common properties, which permit a general proof of the synchronous and totally asynchronous convergence of the iteration p(t+1)=I(p(t)) to a unique fixed point at which total transmitted power is minimized.
Abstract: In cellular wireless communication systems, transmitted power is regulated to provide each user an acceptable connection by limiting the interference caused by other users. Several models have been considered including: (1) fixed base station assignment where the assignment of users to base stations is fixed, (2) minimum power assignment where a user is iteratively assigned to the base station at which its signal to interference ratio is highest, and (3) diversity reception where a user's signal is combined from several or perhaps all base stations. For the above models, the uplink power control problem can be reduced to finding a vector p of users' transmitter powers satisfying p/spl ges/I(p) where the jth constraint p/sub j//spl ges/I/sub j/(p) describes the interference that user j must overcome to achieve an acceptable connection. This work unifies results found for these systems by identifying common properties of the interference constraints. It is also shown that systems in which transmitter powers are subject to maximum power limitations share these common properties. These properties permit a general proof of the synchronous and totally asynchronous convergence of the iteration p(t+1)=I(p(t)) to a unique fixed point at which total transmitted power is minimized. >

2,526 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a max-min power control algorithm to ensure uniformly good service throughout the area of coverage in a cell-free massive MIMO system, where each user is served by a dedicated access point.
Abstract: A Cell-Free Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) system comprises a very large number of distributed access points (APs), which simultaneously serve a much smaller number of users over the same time/frequency resources based on directly measured channel characteristics. The APs and users have only one antenna each. The APs acquire channel state information through time-division duplex operation and the reception of uplink pilot signals transmitted by the users. The APs perform multiplexing/de-multiplexing through conjugate beamforming on the downlink and matched filtering on the uplink. Closed-form expressions for individual user uplink and downlink throughputs lead to max–min power control algorithms. Max–min power control ensures uniformly good service throughout the area of coverage. A pilot assignment algorithm helps to mitigate the effects of pilot contamination, but power control is far more important in that regard. Cell-Free Massive MIMO has considerably improved performance with respect to a conventional small-cell scheme, whereby each user is served by a dedicated AP, in terms of both 95%-likely per-user throughput and immunity to shadow fading spatial correlation. Under uncorrelated shadow fading conditions, the cell-free scheme provides nearly fivefold improvement in 95%-likely per-user throughput over the small-cell scheme, and tenfold improvement when shadow fading is correlated.

1,234 citations

Book
17 Nov 2016
TL;DR: This is the first complete guide to the physical and engineering principles of Massive MIMO and will guide readers through key topics in multi-cell systems such as propagation modeling, multiplexing and de-multiplexing, channel estimation, power control, and performance evaluation.
Abstract: "Written by the pioneers of the concept, this is the first complete guide to the physical and engineering principles of Massive MIMO. Assuming only a basic background in communications and statisti ...

1,115 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that the UC approach, which requires smaller backhaul overhead and is more scalable that the CF deployment, also achieves generally better performance than the CF approach for the vast majority of the users, especially on the uplink.
Abstract: Recently, the so-called cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture has been introduced, wherein a very large number of distributed access points (APs) simultaneously and jointly serve a much smaller number of mobile stations (MSs). The paper extends the CF approach to the case in which both the APs and the MSs are equipped with multiple antennas, proposing a beamfoming scheme that, relying on the zero-forcing strategy, does not require channel estimation at the MSs. We contrast the originally proposed formulation of CF massive MIMO with a user-centric (UC) approach wherein each MS is served only by a limited number of APs. Exploiting the framework of successive lower-bound maximization, the paper also proposes and analyzes power allocation strategies aimed at either sum-rate maximization or minimum-rate maximization, both for the uplink and downlink. Results show that the UC approach, which requires smaller backhaul overhead and is more scalable that the CF deployment, also achieves generally better performance than the CF approach for the vast majority of the users, especially on the uplink.

192 citations