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Journal ArticleDOI

Keeping p53 in check: essential and synergistic functions of Mdm2 and Mdm4.

01 Jun 2006-Cell Death & Differentiation (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP)-Vol. 13, Iss: 6, pp 927-934

TL;DR: This work presents a novel and scalable approach to gene expression engineering that allows for real-time annotation of gene expression changes in response to cancerigenicity and shows promise in finding novel and efficient treatments for cancer.

Abstract1 Laboratory For Molecular Cancer Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Ghent, Technologiepark, 927, Ghent B9052, Belgium 2 Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Gene Expression Laboratory, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA 3 Gene Expression and Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France 4 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and department of Molecular Genetics, Section of Cancer Genetics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA * Corresponding author: J-C Marine, Laboratory For Molecular Cancer Biology, VIB, Technologiepark, 927, Ghent B-9052, Belgium. Tel: þ 32-93-313-640; Fax: þ 32-93-313-516; E-mail: chris.marine@dmbr.ugent.be

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2009-Cell
TL;DR: Control of p53's transcriptional activity is crucial for determining which p53 response is activated, a decision that must be understood if the next generation of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit p53 are to be exploited efficiently.
Abstract: While the tumor suppressor functions of p53 have long been recognized, the contribution of p53 to numerous other aspects of disease and normal life is only now being appreciated. This burgeoning range of responses to p53 is reflected by an increasing variety of mechanisms through which p53 can function, although the ability to activate transcription remains key to p53's modus operandi. Control of p53's transcriptional activity is crucial for determining which p53 response is activated, a decision we must understand if we are to exploit efficiently the next generation of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit p53.

2,533 citations


Cites background from "Keeping p53 in check: essential and..."

  • ...A wealth of studies have delved into their interactions with p53 and have been well reviewed (Marine et al., 2006, 2007; Poyurovsky and Prives, 2006; Toledo and Wahl, 2006)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is now becoming clear that p53 can have a much broader role and can contribute to the development, life expectancy and overall fitness of an organism.
Abstract: p53 is best known as a tumour suppressor, although recent studies have challenged the view that this is its only role. Instead, p53 has important functions in organismal development, and might contribute to a number of diseases other than cancer.

1,945 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 May 2009-Cell
TL;DR: It is proposed that antirepression, the release of p53 from repression by factors such as Mdm2 and MdmX, is a key step in the physiological activation of p 53.
Abstract: The traditional view of p53 activation includes three steps—p53 stabilization, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation. However, recent studies indicate that each step of p53 activation is more complex than originally anticipated. Moreover, both genetic studies in mice and in vitro studies with purified components suggest that the classical model may not be sufficient to explain all aspects of p53 activation in vivo. To reconcile these differences, we propose that antirepression, the release of p53 from repression by factors such as Mdm2 and MdmX, is a key step in the physiological activation of p53.

1,376 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review of in vitro studies, human tumour data and recent mouse models shows that p53 post-translational modifications have modulatory roles, and MDM2 andMDM4 have more profound roles for regulating p53.
Abstract: Mutations in TP53, the gene that encodes the tumour suppressor p53, are found in 50% of human cancers, and increased levels of its negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4 (also known as MDMX) downregulate p53 function in many of the rest. Understanding p53 regulation remains a crucial goal to design broadly applicable anticancer strategies based on this pathway. This Review of in vitro studies, human tumour data and recent mouse models shows that p53 post-translational modifications have modulatory roles, and MDM2 and MDM4 have more profound roles for regulating p53. Importantly, MDM4 emerges as an independent target for drug development, as its inactivation is crucial for full p53 activation.

1,233 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mechanisms by which Mutant p53 exerts its cellular effects are reviewed, with a particular focus on the burgeoning mutant p53 transcriptome, and the biological and clinical consequences of mutant p 53 gain of function are discussed.
Abstract: There is now strong evidence that mutation not only abrogates p53 tumor-suppressive functions, but in some instances can also endow mutant proteins with novel activities. Such neomorphic p53 proteins are capable of dramatically altering tumor cell behavior, primarily through their interactions with other cellular proteins and regulation of cancer cell transcriptional programs. Different missense mutations in p53 may confer unique activities and thereby offer insight into the mutagenic events that drive tumor progression. Here we review mechanisms by which mutant p53 exerts its cellular effects, with a particular focus on the burgeoning mutant p53 transcriptome, and discuss the biological and clinical consequences of mutant p53 gain of function.

871 citations


Cites background from "Keeping p53 in check: essential and..."

  • ...Not surprisingly, both Mdm2 and MdmX are overexpressed in a variety of neoplasms (Marine et al. 2006)....

    [...]


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
19 Nov 1993-Cell
TL;DR: A gene is identified, named WAF1, whose induction was associated with wild-type but not mutant p53 gene expression in a human brain tumor cell line and that could be an important mediator of p53-dependent tumor growth suppression.
Abstract: The ability of p53 to activate transcription from specific sequences suggests that genes induced by p53 may mediate its biological role as a tumor suppressor. Using a subtractive hybridization approach, we identified a gene, named WAF1, whose induction was associated with wild-type but not mutant p53 gene expression in a human brain tumor cell line. The WAF1 gene was localized to chromosome 6p21.2, and its sequence, structure, and activation by p53 was conserved in rodents. Introduction of WAF1 cDNA suppressed the growth of human brain, lung, and colon tumor cells in culture. Using a yeast enhancer trap, a p53-binding site was identified 2.4 kb upstream of WAF1 coding sequences. The WAF1 promoter, including this p53-binding site, conferred p53-dependent inducibility upon a heterologous reporter gene. These studies define a gene whose expression is directly induced by p53 and that could be an important mediator of p53-dependent tumor growth suppression.

8,173 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Feb 2004-Science
Abstract: MDM2 binds the p53 tumor suppressor protein with high affinity and negatively modulates its transcriptional activity and stability. Overexpression of MDM2, found in many human tumors, effectively impairs p53 function. Inhibition of MDM2-p53 interaction can stabilize p53 and may offer a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we identify potent and selective small-molecule antagonists of MDM2 and confirm their mode of action through the crystal structures of complexes. These compounds bind MDM2 in the p53-binding pocket and activate the p53 pathway in cancer cells, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and growth inhibition of human tumor xenografts in nude mice.

4,082 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 May 1997-Nature
TL;DR: It is proposed that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.
Abstract: The p53 tumour-suppressor protein exerts antiproliferative effects, including growth arrest and apoptosis, in response to various types of stress. The activity of p53 is abrogated by mutations that occur frequently in tumours, as well as by several viral and cellular proteins. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of p53. Mdm2 binds the transcriptional activation domain of p53 and blocks its ability to regulate target genes and to exert antiproliferative effects. On the other hand, p53 activates the expression of the mdm2 gene in an autoregulatory feedback loop. The interval between p53 activation and consequent Mdm2 accumulation defines a time window during which p53 exerts its effects. We now report that Mdm2 also promotes the rapid degradation of p53 under conditions in which p53 is otherwise stabilized. This effect of Mdm2 requires binding of p53; moreover, a small domain of p53, encompassing the Mdm2-binding site, confers Mdm2-dependent detstabilization upon heterologous proteins. Raised amounts of Mdm2 strongly repress mutant p53 accumulation in tumour-derived cells. During recovery from DNA damage, maximal Mdm2 induction coincides with rapid p53 loss. We propose that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.

4,058 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 May 1997-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that interaction with Mdm2 can also result in a large reduction in p53 protein levels through enhanced proteasome-dependent degradation, which may contribute to the maintenance of low p53 concentrations in normal cells.
Abstract: The tumour-suppressor p53 is a short-lived protein that is maintained at low, often undetectable, levels in normal cells. Stabilization of the protein in response to an activating signal, such as DNA damage, results in a rapid rise in p53 levels and subsequent inhibition of cell growth. Tight regulation of p53 function is critical for normal cell growth and development, and one mechanism by which p53 function is controlled is through interaction with the Mdm2 protein. Mdm2 inhibits p53 cell-cycle arrest and apoptic functions and we show here that interaction with Mdm2 can also result in a large reduction in p53 protein levels through enhanced proteasome-dependent degradation. Endogenous levels of Mdm2 are sufficient to regulate p53 stability, and overexpression of Mdm2 can reduce the amount of endogenous p53. Because mdm2 is transcriptionally activated by p53, this degradative pathway may contribute to the maintenance of low p53 concentrations in normal cells. Furthermore, mechanisms regulating the Mdm2-induced degradation of p53 may play a role in controlling the extent and duration of the p53 response.

3,162 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that the MDM2 protein, which is induced by p53, functions as a ubiquitin ligase, E3, in human papillomavirus‐uninfected cells which do not have E6 protein.
Abstract: The tumor suppressor p53 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. p53 was polyubiquitinated in the presence of E1, UbcH5 as E2 and MDM2 oncoprotein. A ubiquitin molecule bound MDM2 through sulfhydroxy bond which is characteristic of ubiquitin ligase (E3)-ubiquitin binding. The cysteine residue in the carboxyl terminus of MDM2 was essential for the activity. These data suggest that the MDM2 protein, which is induced by p53, functions as a ubiquitin ligase, E3, in human papillomavirus-uninfected cells which do not have E6 protein.

1,885 citations