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Journal ArticleDOI

Kinetics and Stoichiometry of an Efficient Methanotroph Methylosarcina sp. LC-4 Isolated from a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite

01 May 2021-Journal of Environmental Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers)-Vol. 147, Iss: 5, pp 04021011

Abstract: In recent times methanotrophs have gained immense interest due to their ability to sequester and utilize methane, which is an inexpensive carbon source as well as a very potent greenhouse g...
Topics: Methanotroph (58%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
S. Kirschke1, Philippe Bousquet1, Philippe Ciais1, Marielle Saunois1  +47 moreInstitutions (22)
01 Oct 2013-Nature Geoscience
Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas, responsible for about 20% of the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases since pre-industrial times. By reacting with hydroxyl radicals, methane reduces the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and generates ozone in the troposphere. Although most sources and sinks of methane have been identified, their relative contributions to atmospheric methane levels are highly uncertain. As such, the factors responsible for the observed stabilization of atmospheric methane levels in the early 2000s, and the renewed rise after 2006, remain unclear. Here, we construct decadal budgets for methane sources and sinks between 1980 and 2010, using a combination of atmospheric measurements and results from chemical transport models, ecosystem models, climate chemistry models and inventories of anthropogenic emissions. The resultant budgets suggest that data-driven approaches and ecosystem models overestimate total natural emissions. We build three contrasting emission scenarios-which differ in fossil fuel and microbial emissions-to explain the decadal variability in atmospheric methane levels detected, here and in previous studies, since 1985. Although uncertainties in emission trends do not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn, we show that the observed stabilization of methane levels between 1999 and 2006 can potentially be explained by decreasing-to-stable fossil fuel emissions, combined with stable-to-increasing microbial emissions. We show that a rise in natural wetland emissions and fossil fuel emissions probably accounts for the renewed increase in global methane levels after 2006, although the relative contribution of these two sources remains uncertain. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

1,381 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sarah Sirajuddin1, Amy C. Rosenzweig1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2015-Biochemistry
TL;DR: This Current Topic review article focuses on the overall architectures, active site structures, substrate reactivities, protein-protein interactions, and chemical mechanisms of both MMOs, with an emphasis on fundamental aspects.
Abstract: Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As potential targets for new gas-to-liquid methane bioconversion processes, MMOs have attracted intense attention in recent years. There are two distinct types of MMO, a soluble, cytoplasmic MMO (sMMO) and a membrane-bound, particulate MMO (pMMO). Both oxidize methane at metal centers within a complex, multisubunit scaffold, but the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms are completely different. This Current Topic review article focuses on the overall architectures, active site structures, substrate reactivities, protein–protein interactions, and chemical mechanisms of both MMOs, with an emphasis on fundamental aspects. In addition, recent advances, including new details of interactions between the sMMO components, characterization of sMMO intermediates, and progress toward understanding the pMMO metal centers are highlighted. The work summarized here provides a guide for th...

202 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yuanfeng Cai1, Yan Zheng2, Paul L. E. Bodelier, Ralf Conrad3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The induction of HAMO activity occurred only after the rapid growth of methanotrophic populations, and a metatranscriptome-wide association study suggests that the concurrent high- and low-affinity methane oxidation was catalysed by known meethanotrophs rather than by the proposed novel atmospheric methane oxidizers.
Abstract: Soils serve as the biological sink of the potent greenhouse gas methane with exceptionally low concentrations of ∼1.84 p.p.m.v. in the atmosphere. The as-yet-uncultivated methane-consuming bacteria have long been proposed to be responsible for this 'high-affinity' methane oxidation (HAMO). Here we show an emerging HAMO activity arising from conventional methanotrophs in paddy soil. HAMO activity was quickly induced during the low-affinity oxidation of high-concentration methane. Activity was lost gradually over 2 weeks, but could be repeatedly regained by flush-feeding the soil with elevated methane. The induction of HAMO activity occurred only after the rapid growth of methanotrophic populations, and a metatranscriptome-wide association study suggests that the concurrent high- and low-affinity methane oxidation was catalysed by known methanotrophs rather than by the proposed novel atmospheric methane oxidizers. These results provide evidence of atmospheric methane uptake in periodically drained ecosystems that are typically considered to be a source of atmospheric methane.

123 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
R. Haubrichs1, Renatus Widmann1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2006-Waste Management
TL;DR: In the long-term, landfills are producing landfill gas (LFG) with low calorific values, therefore, the utilization of LFG in combined heat and power plants (CHP) is limited to a certain period of time and a feasible method for LFG treatment is microbial CH(4) oxidation.
Abstract: In the long-term, landfills are producing landfill gas (LFG) with low calorific values. Therefore, the utilization of LFG in combined heat and power plants (CHP) is limited to a certain period of time. A feasible method for LFG treatment is microbial CH(4) oxidation. Different materials were tested in actively aerated lab-scale bio-filter systems with a volume of 0.167 m(3). The required oxygen for the microbial CH(4) oxidation was provided through perforated probes, which distributed ambient air into the filter material. Three air input levels were installed along the height of the filter, each of them adjusted to a particular flow rate. During the tests, stable degradation rates of around 28 g/(m(3) h) in a fine-grained compost material were observed at a CH(4) inlet concentration of 30% over a period of 148 days. Compared with passive (not aerated) tests, the CH(4) oxidation rate increased by a factor of 5.5. Therefore, the enhancement of active aeration on the microbial CH(4) oxidation was confirmed. At a O(2)/CH(4) ratio of 2.5, nearly 100% of the CH(4) load was decomposed. By lowering the ratio from 2.5 to 2, the efficiency fell to values from 88% to 92%. By varying the distribution to the three air input levels, the CH(4) oxidation process was spread more evenly over the filter volume.

108 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis showed that these are type I methanotrophs (family: Methylococcaceae) most closely related to the Methylobacter/Methylomicrobium clade, although they form a monophyletic grouping supported by moderately high bootstrap values.
Abstract: Two novel species of obligate methane-oxidizing bacteria, isolated from landfill soil, were characterized. Both strains were unusual in that some members of the population grew in irregularly shaped, refractile cell packets that resembled sarcina-like clusters. Electron microscopy revealed that the cell packets were covered with a slime layer and the cells contained many large granular inclusion bodies. The individual cells of each strain were sometimes motile and had differing morphologies. Isolate AML-C10T was always coccoidal in shape, and the cells were covered with extracellular fibrils. Isolate AML-D4T was pleomorphic, changing from rod to coccal form, sometimes exhibiting an unusual fusiform morphology. AML-D4T lacked the extensive fibrillar matrix observed with AML-C10T. Both strains utilized only methane and methanol as carbon sources. In stationary phase, the cells of each strain swelled in size and formed cysts. Aside from morphological differences, strains could also be distinguished from each other by cellular protein patterns, as well as by temperature and pH tolerances. 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis showed that these are type I methanotrophs (family: Methylococcaceae) most closely related to the Methylobacter/Methylomicrobium clade, although they form a monophyletic grouping supported by moderately high bootstrap values. By 16S rDNA database searches, the most similar species to both isolates were Methylobacter spp. However, partial particulate methane monooxygenase sequence analysis suggested that these bacteria might be more closely related to Methylomicrobium than Methylobacter. Furthermore, cellular fatty acid profiles of the strains more closely resemble those of Methylomicrobium, although the absence of significant levels of 16:1omega5c argues for the uniqueness of these two strains. On the basis of the results described here, it is proposed that a new genus should be created, Methylosarcina gen. nov., harbouring two species, Methylosarcina fibrata sp. nov. (type species) and Methylosarcina quisquiliarum sp. nov. The type strains are AML-C10T (= ATCC 700909T = DSM 13736T) and AML-D4T (= ATCC 700908T = DSM 13737T), respectively.

92 citations