scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book

L'Iran sous les Sassanides

01 Jan 1944-
About: The article was published on 1944-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 121 citations till now.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
E. D. Hunt1
TL;DR: Ammianus Marcellinus, by common consent the last great historian of Rome, rounds off his obituary notice of the emperor Constantius II (d. 361) with the following observation:The plain simplicity of Christianity he obscured by an old woman's superstition; by intricate investigation instead of seriously trying to reconcile, he stirred up very many disputes, and as these spread widely he nourished them with arguments about words; with the result that crowds of bishops rushed hither and thither by means of public mounts on their way to synods, and while he tried to
Abstract: Ammianus Marcellinus, by common consent the last great historian of Rome, rounds off his obituary notice of the emperor Constantius II (d. 361) with the following observation:The plain simplicity of Christianity he obscured by an old woman's superstition; by intricate investigation instead of seriously trying to reconcile, he stirred up very many disputes, and as these spread widely he nourished them with arguments about words; with the result that crowds of bishops rushed hither and thither by means of public mounts on their way to synods (as they call them), and while he tried to make all their worship conform to his own will, he cut the sinews of the public transport service.This is a perceptive judgement of the ecclesiastical politics of the reign of Constantius, remarkable in a pagan writer, and of exceptional significance in that it lies outside those very ‘arguments about words’ which contaminate all the Christian assessments of this emperor. Although Ammianus is unsympathetic to Constantius, he manages succinctly to grasp the basic drift of imperial policy, inherited from Constantine himself, of trying to enforce the emperor's view of doctrinal and ecclesiastical unity by the summoning of repeated episcopal councils and browbeating the bishops into agreement — thus paying lip-service to the independence of the church's judgements. To the observant outsider, this process was notable above all for the burden it placed on the cursus publicus, as the bishops went about their business around the empire now provided with official evectiones; and Ammianus' comment finds confirmation in the letter issued by eastern bishops attending one of the many councils of Constantius' reign, that at Sardica in 343, who complained of the ‘attrition’ of the transport service caused by the imperial summons.

36 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The famous Byzantine embassy of Zemarchus to the western ruler of the Turks is quite a well-known story as mentioned in this paper, and an attempt is made to clarify some details of the journey, with special focus on methods and manners of communication.
Abstract: The famous embassy of Zemarchus to the western ruler of the Turks is quite a well-known story. In this paper an attempt is made to clarify some details of the journey, with special focus on methods and manners of communication. Did Byzantine diplomacy make use of some of its old skills in dealing with the Altaic peoples, or, as many scholars have already supposed, was there a new process based mainly on experiences with Sasanian Iran and other Iranian peoples?

33 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Dec 2005
TL;DR: The formation of the Islamic empire, which followed the death of the Prophet in 632, falls conveniently but not rigidly into two phases as discussed by the authors : the first was an explosive and surprisingly easy series of conquests of the territories closest to Arabia, which soon brought Byzantine Syria, Palestine and Egypt as well as Sasanian Iraq into the orbit of government from Medina.
Abstract: Muslim tradition speaks of the existence of soothsayers or sorcerers (kahins) in the pre-Islamic period. The period immediately preceding the Arab invasions had proved as disastrous for the Sasanian Empire as for Byzantium. The Qur'anic revelations were being used in early Muslim worship and memorised by the faithful. Like Moses before him, Muhammad, the 'seal of the Prophets', was involved in social action as well as preaching. The formation of the Islamic empire, which followed the death of the Prophet in 632, falls conveniently but not rigidly into two phases. The first was an explosive and surprisingly easy series of conquests of the territories closest to Arabia, which soon brought Byzantine Syria, Palestine and Egypt as well as Sasanian Iraq into the orbit of government from Medina. The second involved protracted and more difficult conquests that eventually added Sasanian Iran and parts of Central Asia in the east and the North African littoral in the west.

32 citations