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La influencia de los medios en la percepción social de la delincuencia

01 Jan 2005-Iss: 7, pp 9
TL;DR: In this paper, an estudio de campo desarrollado by the autora al objeto de verificar varias hipotesis relacionadas with el tratamiento informativo de la delincuencia.
Abstract: En el presente articulo se exponen los resultados de un estudio de campo desarrollado por la autora al objeto de verificar varias hipotesis relacionadas con el tratamiento informativo de la delincuencia. El estudio abarca un periodo de dos anos y se basa en los datos obtenidos de tres fuentes: las noticias sobre delincuencia en el diario El Pais, las encuestas de opinion mensuales del Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas (CIS) y los datos oficiales sobre delincuencia. Del analisis realizado concluye la autora que el aumento considerable de la preocupacion y el miedo al delito, la inclusion del problema de la inseguridad ciudadana en los primeros puestos de la agenda politica del Gobierno y el subsiguiente giro hacia el modelo de "ley y orden", asi como la influencia de ciertos grupos de presion corporativos -en especial los sindicatos policiales y de los funcionarios de prisiones- son fenomenos directamente relacionados con la atencion mediatica y no responden a un importante y efectivo incremento de la tasa de delincuencia en Espana.
Citations
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Dissertation
28 Nov 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the social construction of migrant and ethnic identity representation in Spanish contemporary film, and examined the influence of the director heritage in the evolution of these representations in national European cinemas.
Abstract: English: This doctoral thesis explores the social construction of migrant and ethnic identity representation, documenting what is being represented in Spanish contemporary film. It draws on the interdisciplinary fields of cultural studies, postcolonial studies, comparative literature, and film and media studies. The theoretical framework of this investigation was based on the theories of alterity and hybrid identities, and the notion of point of view, in particular the influence of director heritage in the evolution of these representations in national European cinemas. The principal corpus used in this thesis consists of sixty full-length feature fiction Spanish national films from the years 2002 to 2010 nominated for a Goya Award between the years 2004 to 2011. These films were selected due to their having been nominated for a Goya award, taking place in the present contemporary era, set in Spain as the physical location of the narrative, and having 100,000 or more spectators. They were examined for director heritage, film funding, inclusion of migrant and ethnic images, the narrative level of these characters as well as their nationality, gender, and age, film setting, language abilities, and occupations. This was followed by documentation on the rhetorical treatment of migrant and ethnic characters. These results are situated both in the wider Spanish cinema and in European cinema models in a comparative manner. They show the evolution of changes occurring in Spanish cinema and deal with questions that have not yet been addressed in Spanish cinema by the academic literature, for example the use of food as a metaphor for migrant assimilation or rejection and a treatment of relationships and sexual relationships according to mania, philia and phobia levels. Espanol: La presente tesis doctoral explora la construccion social de la identidad inmigrante y etnica a partir del cine espanol contemporaneo. Hace uso de una aproximacion metodologica interdisciplinar que comprende la critica postcolonial, la literatura comparada, los estudios culturales, los estudios sobre media y filmicos. El marco teorico de esta investigacion se ha basado en las teorias de la alteridad e identidad hibrida y en la nocion de punto de vista, en concreto la influencia de la herencia del director en la evolucion de estas imagenes de la inmigracion en diversos cines europeos nacionales. El corpus principal de la tesis esta compuesto por sesenta peliculas de ficcion espanolas producidas entre los anos 2002 y 2010, y nominadas para los premios Goya entre los anos 2004 y 2011. La seleccion se establecio a partir de su inclusion en dichas nominaciones a los Goya, la ambientacion contemporanea en territorio espanol y su visionado por una recepcion minima de 100.000 espectadores. A continuacion se han examinado estas peliculas en relacion a la herencia identitaria del director, la financiacion, y en cuanto a los personajes inmigrantes como su inclusion, nivel de protagonismo, la nacionalidad, el genero, la edad, las habilidades linguisticas y las profesiones, lo que se ha complementado con un analisis critico en torno al tratamiento retorico del Otro. Por ultimo, estos resultados se interpretan en relacion al cine espanol y europeo, modelos confrontados en terminos comparativos. Muestran la evolucion del cine espanol sobre dicha problematica y tratan cuestiones que no han sido analizadas aun por la bibliografia academica al uso, por ejemplo el uso de la comida como metafora para la asimilacion o el rechazo del inmigrante y la existencia de mania, filia o fobia en las relaciones romanticas y sexuales en el cine espanol.

44 citations

Dissertation
05 Dec 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the perception of senior citizens of the Playa de Palma (Mallorca) frente to the percepcion of the población residente.
Abstract: espanolEsta investigacion explora la percepcion que los turistas seniors tienen de la seguridad en la Playa de Palma (Mallorca) frente a la percepcion de la poblacion residente. La Playa de Palma es un destino turistico de sol y playa maduro en proceso de transformacion cuya imagen como destino se esta viendo afectada por actividades ilicitas y comportamientos incivicos que son difundidos por los medios de comunicacion, lo que contribuye a degradar la imagen del destino turistico, a la vez que crece la demanda de seguridad y de presencia policial en la zona por parte de los residentes. El marco teorico de la investigacion sigue tres ejes: las teorias criminologicas basadas en la prevencion situacional y las tecnicas comunitarias; la construccion social de la imagen del destino turistico como resultado de su evolucion territorial y socioeconomica; y, finalmente, la politica publica en materia de seguridad ciudadana y el papel de las Policias Locales como instrumento de la intervencion social comunitaria para la gobernabilidad. El trabajo de campo ha consistido en la realizacion de 1.334 cuestionarios recopilados en dos encuestas: una dirigida, contestada por 651 sujetos (412 turistas seniors y 239 residentes) entrevistados de forma aleatoria en la zona de estudio y otras no dirigida, contestada de forma voluntaria por 683 turistas seniors que asistieron a las charlas sobre seguridad impartidas por la Policia Local en 2016 y 2017. Los resultados proporcionan informacion sobre la victimizacion directa e indirecta de los turistas seniors y de los residentes, su valoracion de la seguridad percibida, la localizacion de los crime hotspots y las causas que estan en el origen de estas percepciones. La investigacion demuestra la existencia de una mala percepcion de seguridad entre los residentes en Playa de Palma, que es pesima entre los residentes en s’Arenal y que se produce de manera multicausal. El deterioro ambiental, los ruidos, las peleas y conflictos vecinales por actos incivicos, la diversidad etnica, unidos a la falta de servicios y equipamientos publicos y a la presencia en verano de grupos de turistas que alteran el orden publico, estan en la base de esta perdida de calidad de vida y de incremento de la inseguridad percibida. Sin embargo, frente a esta vision negativa de los residentes, la investigacion demuestra que el turismo senior percibe la Playa de Palma como un destino muy seguro, al que valora con un notable alto. La zona que genera mayor inseguridad entre los turistas seniors es la primera linea entre s’Arenal y el balneario 4 debido a la presencia de ciertos grupos que practican trile y venta ambulante principalmente. La asincronia con la que viaja el turismo senior respecto del maximo estival, en el que se producen mayor numero de incidentes, y las actividades diurnas y rutinarias que realiza en Playa de Palma determina un bajo nivel de exposicion al riesgo, lo que condiciona su percepcion favorable de seguridad. Turistas y residentes visualizan a la Policia Local como un elemento clave en la politica publica de seguridad y reclaman su presencia como elemento externo de control de la comunidad. EnglishThis research explores the safety perception of senior tourists in the Playa de Palma (Mallorca) in front of resident population. Playa de Palma is a mature sun and beach tourist destination under a transformation process whom appearance of the destiation is being affected by illicit activities and uncivil behaviors that are also disseminated by the media. At the same time, the demand of local residents for security and police presence is clearly incressing. The theoretical framework of this thesis is focused on the following: (a) criminological theories based on situational crime prevention and community techniques; (b) the social construction of the tourist destination appearance as a result of its territorial and socioeconomic evolution; and (c) the public policy on citizen security and the role of city police as a community social intervention tool for governance. The fieldwork approach was based on 1,334 questionnaires collected in two surveys. The first one was a directed interview, answered by 651 persons (412 tourists and 239 residents), randomly selected in the study area. The second one, non-directed, voluntarily answered by 683 senior tourists who attended the talks on safety conducted by the City Police in 2016 and 2017. The results provide information on the direct and indirect victimization of senior tourists as well as residents, their feedback on the perceived security, the crime hotspots location and reasons which are generating these perceptions. The research elucidates a bad perception of safety among the residents of Playa de Palma, which is very bad among the residents of S’Arenal under a multi-causal context. Environmental damage, noise, fights and neighborhood conflicts by incivilities, ethnic diversity, together with the lack of public services and facilities and the presence in summer of groups of tourists that disturb public order, are at the base of this loss of quality of life and increase in the perceived insecurity. However, against this negative view from residents, research demonstrates that senior tourism perceives Playa de Palma as a very safe destination, rating it with a very high average mark. The zone that generates greater insecurity among senior tourists is the shoreline between S’Arenal and Spa number 4 due to the presence of specific groups that mainly are practicing thimblerig and street sell. The asynchrony between senior tourism travels and the summer peak, when occurring more incidents, as well the daily and routine activities that these senior tourists develops in Playa de Palma determines a low level of risk exposure and a favourable perception of security. Tourists and residents perceive the City Police as a key element in public security policy and demand their presence as an external element of community control. The perception of security would be greatly improved if the businesses that attract drunken tourism disappear, a segment that is incompatible with the quality improvement strategy in which the private sector has clearly been implicated and which harms the [30] efficiency of the investment efforts, threatening the new tourist development model at the Playa de Palma. catalaAquesta investigacio explora la percepcio que els turistes seniors tenen de la seguretat a la Platja de Palma (Mallorca) front a la percepcio de la poblacio resident. La Platja de Palma es un desti turistic de sol i platja en proces de transformacio, la imatge del qual s’ha vist afectada per activitats il·licites i comportaments incivics que difonen els mitjans de comunicacio i que contribueixin a degradar la imatge del desti turistic, a la vegada que creix la demanda de seguretat i de presencia policial a la zona per part de los residents. El marc teoric de la investigacio te tres eixos: les teories criminologiques basades en la prevencio de la situacio i les tecniques comunitaries; la construccio social de la imatge del desti turistic com a resultat de la seva evolucio territorial i socioeconomica i, finalment, la politica publica en materia de seguretat ciutadana i el paper de la Policia Local com a instrument de la intervencio social comunitaria per a la governabilitat. El treball de camp ha consistit en la realitzacio de 1.334 questionaris recopilats en dos enquestes: una dirigida, contestada per 651 subjectes (412 turistes seniors i 239 residents) entrevistats de forma aleatoria a la zona d'estudi i un altre no dirigida, contestada de forma voluntaria per 683 turistes seniors que han assistit a les xerrades sobre seguretat impartides per la Politica Local en 2016 i 2017. Els resultats proporcionen informacio sobre la victimitzacio directa i la indirecta dels turistes senior i dels residents, la seva valoracio de la seguretat, la localitzacio dels punts calents de criminalitat (crime hotspots) i les causes que estan en l'origen d'aquestes percepcions. La investigacio demostra l’existencia d’una percepcio de seguretat dolenta entre els residents a la platja de Palma, que es pessima entre els residents a s’Arenal i que es produeix de manera multicausal. El deteriorament ambiental, els renous, les baralles i conflictes veinals per actes incivics, la diversitat etnica, unida a la falta de serveis i equipaments publics i a la presencia a l'estiu de grups de turistes que alteren l’ordre public, romanen a la base d’aquesta perdua de qualitat de vida i d'increment de la inseguretat. Nogensmenys, davant d’aquesta visio negativa dels residents, la investigacio demostra que el turisme senior percep la Platja de Palma com un desti molt segur, la qual valora amb un notable alt. La zona que genera major inseguretat entre els turistes seniors es la primera linia entre s’Arenal i el balneari 4, a causa de la presencia de grups que practiquen «trile» i venda ambulant, principalment. La forma asincronica amb la que viatja el turisme senior respecte del maxim estival, durant el qual es produeixen gran nombre d’incidents, i les activitats diurnes i rutinaries que realitza a la platja de Palma determina un baix nivell d’exposicio al risc, la qual cosa condiciona una percepcio favorable de seguretat. Turistes i residents visualitzen la Politica Local com a un element clau en la politica publica de seguretat i reclamen de la seva presencia com a element extern de control de la comunitat. La percepcio de seguretat milloraria ampliament si desapareguessin els negocis que atreuen el turisme de gatera, un segment que resulta incompatible amb l'estrategia de millora de la qualitat amb la qual s’ha compromes clarament el sector privat i que [29] perjudica l’eficiencia de la inversio realitzada i compromet el nou model de desenvolupament turistic de la platja de Palma.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2010
TL;DR: In Espana no contamos con encuestas de victimizacion periodicas debido a que ningun organismo has asumido esta relevante tarea as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: En Espana no contamos con encuestas de victimizacion periodicas debido a que ningun organismo ha asumido esta relevante tarea. Para conocer el volumen y evolucion de la delincuencia en este pais ha habido que recurrir, hasta el momento, a las estadisticas oficiales como unico referente, siendo por todos conocidas las deficiencias que presentan estas fuentes por si solas para tales fines. La investigacion que presentamos en este articulo muestra un analisis de la realidad delictiva en Espana a partir de encuestas de victimizacion a nivel nacional. La comparacion longitudinal se ha realizado entre los dos pases internacionales de la ICVS (1989 y 2005) en los que Espana participo, y la encuesta realizada por el Observatorio de la Delincuencia (ODA) en 2009 con el mismo cuestionario ICVS. Con estas tres encuestas se ha podido realizar un analisis de la evolucion de la delincuencia en Espana en las ultimas dos decadas. Como comprobara el lector a lo largo de estas paginas, a pesar de que la opinion publica considera que la delincuencia en Espana ha aumentado en las decadas analizadas, los resultados de las encuestas de victimizacion muestran que en realidad ha descendido.

25 citations

01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In el presente trabajo se aborda esta cuestion, analizando las tecnicas concretas a traves de las cuales los medios de comunicacion consiguen tener una incidencia directa en la evolucion de la politica criminal espanola.
Abstract: Es ya un lugar comun entre la doctrina penal y criminologica espanola considerar a los medios de comunicacion como uno de los actores principales dentro del proceso de deriva punitiva que define a la actual politica criminal. Sin embargo, mas alla de una generica alusion al incremento de la sensacion de inseguridad entre la poblacion por el tratamiento sensacionalista y desproporcionado de la delincuencia, no suele explicitarse el mecanismo o mecanismos a traves de los cuales los medios de comunicacion estarian contribuyendo a dicha deriva punitiva. En el presente trabajo se aborda esta cuestion, analizando las tecnicas concretas a traves de las cuales los medios de comunicacion consiguen tener una incidencia directa en la evolucion de la politica criminal espanola. Estos mecanismos son basicamente dos: el fenomeno de la �agenda setting� (tematizacion de la agenda) y la tecnica del �framing� (encuadre noticioso).

14 citations

01 Nov 2013
TL;DR: Muratori et al. as discussed by the authors presented a study on the effects of stress on mental health in the context of the Argentina-Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CICTE).
Abstract: Fil: Muratori, Marcela. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Psicologia; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas; Argentina

13 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of newspaper coverage on fear of crime has been examined in 26 cities used in the National Crime Survey (NCS) and found that some forms of coverage increase fear, while other forms decrease fear.
Abstract: Fear of crime has emerged as a significant social issue. Survey research suggests that it has significantly increased since the mid-1960s and that it has become a component of the stresses, strains, and health of contemporary urban life. Causal research, for the most part, treats fear as a characteristic of individuals and examines how it is affected by other individual characteristics, such as age, sex, class, and race. Our research treats fear as a characteristic of social units (cities) and examines how it is affected by the structural and cultural characteristics of those units, such as crime rates and the newspaper coverage of crime. The sample consists of the 26 cities used in the National Crime Survey (NCS). Data on the fear of crime are obtained from the NCS; data on structural characteristics are obtained from a variety of sources, including the Uniform Crime Reports (VCR), NCS, and the U.S. census; and data on newspaper coverage are obtained from a content analysis of the newspapers of the 26 cities. The results show that the effect of newspaper coverage is complex, with some forms of coverage increasing fear and other forms of coverage decreasing fear, and that the effect of official crime rates is mediated through the newspaper coverage of crime.

237 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a three-stage study of the relationship between newspaper reporting of crime and fear of crime was carried out and a significant positive correlation was found which appeared to be independent of demographic factors associated with readership.
Abstract: This article reports a three-stage study of the relationship between newspaper reporting of crime and fear of crime. The first stage measured the amount of space and prominence given to crime, particularly violent crime, in ten British daily newspapers. The second stage of the study was a questionnaire survey of the relationship between newspaper reporting of crime and fear of crime. A significant positive correlation was found which appeared to be independent of demographic factors associated with readership. The third stage examined qualitative aspects of reporting styles in these newspapers. Consistent differences were found between newspapers. Those newspapers classified as 'broadsheets' carried proportionally fewer crime reports and reported crimes in a less sensational fashion than the 'tabloids', particularly low-market ones. Fear of crime (FOC) has been identified as a problem in its own right. A Home Office working party recently noted that 'fear of crime will grow unless checked. As an issue of social concern, it has to be taken as seriously as . . . crime prevention and reduction' (Home Office 1989: ii). Moore and Trojanowicz (1988) argue that reasonable fears concerning crime can be harnessed to fight the threat of crime, but when these fears become unreasonable they amount to a counterproductive response and become a social problem.

229 citations

01 Jan 2001

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the literature concerning the influence of indirect experiences upon fear of crime, with a focus on trying to understand why citizens fail to use the mass media as a source of information about personal crime risk.
Abstract: To adapt effectively to environmental hazards such as the risk of crime victimization, individuals should not rely solely upon their direct personal experience. Instead, they should use information about the environment gained from others' experiences in estimating risks and in determining the appropriate type and number of behaviors to undertake in order to avoid victimization. Such information can come either through social networks (i.e., through talking to friends, family, or neighbors) or via the mass media (newspapers, television, radio, magazines, and pamphlets). Although experiences conveyed by family, friends, and neighbors have been found to influence risk estimates and prevention behaviors, mass media experiences have not been found to influence such judgments or behaviors. This lack of mass media influence has been found both in studies of naturally occurring crime-risk judgments and in evaluations of media campaigns, such as the recent national campaign urging citizens to “take a bite out of crime.” This paper reviews the literature concerning the influence of indirect experiences upon fear of crime, with a focus on trying to understand why citizens fail to use the mass media as a source of information about personal crime risk.

134 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a structural equation model based on a two-wave survey of the population shows that the crime wave had a powerful impact that was almost a mirror image of what the fear of crime literature would predict.
Abstract: In 1980, Phoenix, Arizona, experienced a "crime wave." A structural equation model based on a two-wave survey of the population shows that the crime wave had a powerful impact that was almost a mirror image of what the fear of crime literature would predict. Demographic groups thought to be most fearful (e.g., women and the elderly) were least affected while groups thought to be least fearful (e.g., well-educated whites) were affected most. In addition to demographic factors, our analysis demonstrates that crime rate perceptions and confidence in the police are integral components of fear, especially in the context of a crime wave. These findings have important implications for crime policy specifically and for criminological research generally.

106 citations