Abstract: The search for safe and effective anticancer therapies is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. The ineffective treatment of cancers, classified as civilization diseases, contributes to a decreased quality of life, health loss, and premature mortality in oncological patients. Many natural phytochemicals have anticancer potential. Pentacyclic triterpenoids, characterized by six- and five-membered ring structures, are one of the largest class of natural metabolites sourced from the plant kingdom. Among the known natural triterpenoids, we can distinguish lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane-types. Pentacyclic triterpenoids are known to have many biological activities, e.g., anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Unfortunately, they are also characterized by poor water solubility and, hence, low bioavailability. These pharmacological properties may be improved by both introducing some modifications to their native structures and developing novel delivery systems based on the latest nanotechnological achievements. The development of nanocarrier-delivery systems is aimed at increasing the transport capacity of bioactive compounds by enhancing their solubility, bioavailability, stability in vivo and ensuring tumor-targeting while their toxicity and risk of side effects are significantly reduced. Nanocarriers may vary in sizes, constituents, shapes, and surface properties, all of which affect the ultimate efficacy and safety of a given anticancer therapy, as presented in this review. The presented results demonstrate the high antitumor potential of systems for delivery of pentacyclic triterpenoids.