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Language Planning: From Practice to Theory

TL;DR: This chapter discusses initial concepts for language planning: a contextual and terminological basis for planning a framework for planning - who does what to whom?
Abstract: Part 1 Initial concepts for language planning: a contextual and terminological basis for planning a framework for planning - who does what to whom? goals of language planning. Part 2 Key issues in language planning: language planning process social purpose planning - education and literacy the economics of language planning. Part 3 Case studies in language planning: language planning and power bilingualism and language status specific purpose language planning. Part 4 Towards a theory of language planning: conceptualizing language planning - key elements conceptualizing language planning - key issues.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors used the metaphor of ecology of language to explore the ideologies underlying multilingual language policies, and the continua of biliteracy framework as ecological heuristic for situating the challenges faced in implementing them.
Abstract: The one language—one nation ideology of language policy and national identity is no longer the only available one worldwide (if it ever was). Multilingual language policies,which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as resources for nation-building, are increasingly in evidence. These policies, many of which envision implementation through bilingual intercultural education, open up new worlds of possibility for oppressed indigenous and immigrant languages and their speakers,transforming former homogenizing and assimilationist policy discourses into discourses about diversity and emancipation. This article uses the metaphor of ecology oflanguage to explore the ideologies underlying multilingual language policies, and the continua of biliteracy framework as ecological heuristic for situating the challenges faced in implementing them. Specifically, the paper considers community and classroom challenges inherent in implementing these new ideologies,as they are evident in two nations which introduced transformative policies in the early 1990s: post-apartheid South Africa's newConstitution of 1993 and Bolivia's National Education Reform of 1994. It concludes with implications for multilingual language policies in the United States and elsewhere.

561 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Theoretical perspectives in language policy: An Overview(Thomas Ricento). as discussed by the authors... Theoretical Perspectives in Language Policy: An Introduction (Thomas Ricente).
Abstract: List of Contributors. Preface. Part I. Theoretical Perspectives in Language Policy: An Overview(Thomas Ricento). 1. Language Policy: Theory and Practice - An Introduction (Thomas Ricento). 2. Frameworks and Models in Language Policy and Planning (Nancy H.Hornberger). 3. Critical Theroy in Language Policy (James W. Tollefson). 4. Postmodernism in Language Policy (Alastair Pennycook). 5. Economic Considerations in Language Policy (FranVois Grin). 6. Political Theory and Language Policy (Ronald Schmidt, Sr). 7. Language Policy and Linguistic Culture (Harold Schiffman). Part II. Methodological Perspectives in Language Policy. Methodological Perspectives in Language Policy: An Overview (Thomas Ricento). 8. The Lessons of Historical Investigation: Implications for the Study of Language Policy and Planning (Terrence G. Wiley). 9. Ethnographic Methods in Language Policy (Suresh Canagarajah). 10. Linguistic Analyses in Language Policies (Ruth Wodak). 11. Geolinguistic Analysis in Language Policy (Don Cartwright). 12. Psycho-Sociological Analysis in Language Policy (Colin Baker). Part III. Topical Areas in Language Policy. Topical Areas in Language Policy: An Overview (Thomas Ricento). 13. Language Policy and National Identity (Jan Blommaert). 14. Language Policy and Minority Rights (Stephen May). 15. Language Policy and Linguistic Human Rights (Tove Skutnabb-Kangas). 16. Language Policies and the Education of Linguistic Minorities (Christina Bratt Paulston and Kai Heidemann). 17. Lnaguage Policy and Language Shift (Joshua A. Fishman). 18. Language Policy and Sign Languages (Timothy Reagan). 19. Language Policy and Linguistic Imperialism (Robert Phillipson). Index.

400 citations

Book
08 Jan 2011
TL;DR: This article evaluated the use of multilple sources and methods in needs analysis for the task of language provision for foreign professional footballers in the Netherlands and a task-based needs analysis of a tertiary Korean as a foreign language program.
Abstract: A rationale for needs analysis and needs analysis research, Methodological issues in learner needs analysis, Language needs analysis at societal level, Foreign language needs assessment in the US military, Sources, methods and triangulation in needs analysis: A critical perspective in a case study of Waikiki hotel maids, Foreign language needs of business firms, Evaluating the use of multilple sources and methods in needs analysis: A case study of journalists in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, A preliminary analysis of language provisions for foreign professional footballers in the Netherlands, A task-based needs analysis of a tertiary Korean as a foreign language program, Collecting target discourse: The case of the US naturalization interview, Service encounters in two coffee shops and at a coffee cart, When small talk is a big deal: scoiolinguistic challenges in the workplace

316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper pointed out that classic language policy dealt almost entirely with the nation-state, although it did recognise the critical role of the family in determining natural intergenerational transmission of a variety.
Abstract: Introducing a pioneering series of studies of family language policy and management, this paper points out that classic language policy dealt almost entirely with the nation-state, although it did recognise the critical role of the family in determining natural intergenerational transmission of a variety. After arguing for the need to look at each of the levels, or, rather, domains making up a speech or political community, it shows how these studies deal with internal pressures (such as ideology or grandparents) and external domains (especially the school) which aim to influence the family domain. More studies of these domains, including the family, are needed to provide a clear understanding of language policy.

262 citations


Cites background from "Language Planning: From Practice to..."

  • ...…and Nekvapil [2012] named it) concentrated on national language planning, aiming to solve the language ‘problems’ of new nations after independence.1 Kaplan and Baldauf (1997) relaxed the restriction to the nation-state by referring to polities, defined by Wikipedia as ‘a state or one of its…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined trends in micro language planning studies to illustrate trends in the literature and showed that language planning can occur at different levels, i.e. the macro, meso and micro.
Abstract: Language planning is normally thought of in terms of large-scale, usually national planning, often undertaken by governments and meant to influence, if not change, ways of speaking or literacy practices within a society. It normally encompasses four aspects: status planning (about society), corpus planning (about language), language-in-education (or acquisition) planning (about learning), and (most recently) prestige planning (about image). When thinking about these aspects, both policy (i.e. form) and planning (i.e. function) components need to be considered as well as whether such policy and planning will be overt or covert in terms of the way it is put into action. Language policy and planning on this scale has dominated current work in the field. However, over the past decade language planning has taken on a more critical edge and its ecological context has been given greater emphasis, leading to an increasing acceptance that language planning can (and does) occur at different levels, i.e. the macro, meso and micro. This shift in focus has also led to a rethinking of agency – who has the power to influence change in these micro language policy and planning situations. Given this break with the dominant macro history, the question may be asked, is this developing notion of micro language planning and local agency actually language planning? If so, what are its parameters? Micro language planning studies are examined to illustrate trends in the literature.

245 citations


Cites background from "Language Planning: From Practice to..."

  • ...Language policies are bodies of ideas, laws, regulations, rules and practices intended to achieve some planned language change (Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997: 3)....

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  • ...…context of, the discipline have taken on greater importance (see Ricento, 2000a for a historical overview, and 2006 for a summary of theory, methods and issues) as those involved have confronted issues such as language ecology (e.g. Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997; Mühlhäusler, 2000), language rights (e.g....

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  • ...Hornberger (1994, 2006) and Kaplan and Baldauf (1997) independently have explicitly brought these two strands together in a single framework while the latter have argued that any such framework is situated within an ecological context....

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  • ...…resistance in their teaching or other work-related situations, but, if language planning and policy is the premier example of applied linguistics as their textbook suggested (Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997), how then could they directly apply what they had studied in a manner relevant to their situations?...

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  • ...…w e t s C o n t e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n ] A t : 0 4 : 4 5 3 J u n e 2 0 1 0 a company requiring business translation in North America (Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997: 254ff)), this application of the principles of language policy and planning to micro situations was not a significant focus of the…...

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