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Journal ArticleDOI

Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols

21 Jan 1971-Perspectives of New Music-Vol. 9, Iss: 2, pp 330
About: This article is published in Perspectives of New Music.The article was published on 1971-01-21. It has received 476 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Terminal and nonterminal symbols & Abstract family of languages.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
D. Moody1
TL;DR: A set of principles for designing cognitively effective visual notations: ones that are optimized for human communication and problem solving are defined, which form a design theory, called the Physics of Notations, which focuses on the physical properties of notations rather than their logical properties.
Abstract: Visual notations form an integral part of the language of software engineering (SE). Yet historically, SE researchers and notation designers have ignored or undervalued issues of visual representation. In evaluating and comparing notations, details of visual syntax are rarely discussed. In designing notations, the majority of effort is spent on semantics, with graphical conventions largely an afterthought. Typically, no design rationale, scientific or otherwise, is provided for visual representation choices. While SE has developed mature methods for evaluating and designing semantics, it lacks equivalent methods for visual syntax. This paper defines a set of principles for designing cognitively effective visual notations: ones that are optimized for human communication and problem solving. Together these form a design theory, called the Physics of Notations as it focuses on the physical (perceptual) properties of notations rather than their logical (semantic) properties. The principles were synthesized from theory and empirical evidence from a wide range of fields and rest on an explicit theory of how visual notations communicate. They can be used to evaluate, compare, and improve existing visual notations as well as to construct new ones. The paper identifies serious design flaws in some of the leading SE notations, together with practical suggestions for improving them. It also showcases some examples of visual notation design excellence from SE and other fields.

1,200 citations


Cites background from "Languages of Art: An Approach to a ..."

  • ...According to Goodman’s theory of symbols [37], for a notation to satisfy the requirements of a notational system, there must be a one-to-one correspondence between symbols and their referent concepts....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work, exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies, and proposes a new agenda for graphical representation research.
Abstract: Advances in graphical technology have now made it possible for us to interact with information in innovative ways, most notably by exploring multimedia environments and by manipulating three-dimensional virtual worlds. Many benefits have been claimed for this new kind of interactivity, a general assumption being that learning and cognitive processing are facilitated. We point out, however, that little is known about the cognitive value ofanygraphical representations, be they good old-fashioned (e.g. diagrams) or more advanced (e.g. animations, multimedia, virtual reality). In our paper, we critique the disparate literature on graphical representations, focusing on four representative studies. Our analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work, exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies. As an alternative we propose a new agenda for graphical representation research. This builds on the nascent theoretical approach within cognitive science that analyses the role played by external representations in relation to internal mental ones. We outline some of the central properties of this relationship that are necessary for the processing of graphical representations. Finally, we consider how this analysis can inform the selection and design of both traditional and advanced forms of graphical technology.

1,072 citations


Cites background from "Languages of Art: An Approach to a ..."

  • ...The theoretical frameworks and formal notations that have been developed for analysing verbal language are not applicable to the syntactically- and semantically-dense properties of graphical representations (Goodman, 1968)....

    [...]

  • ...Many benefits for industrial and educational applications have been claimed, such as powerful visualization tools for designers, architects and chemists (e.g. Earnshaw and Watson, 1993; Rheingold, 1991)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This target article argues for an abstract solution to the problem and exhibits a source of empirical data that is relevant, data that show that in a certain sense phenomenal consciousness overflows cognitive accessibility and can be found a neural realizer of this overflow.
Abstract: How can we disentangle the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness from the neural machinery of the cognitive access that underlies reports of phenomenal consciousness? We see the problem in stark form if we ask how we can tell whether representations inside a Fodorian module are phenomenally conscious. The methodology would seem straightforward: Find the neural natural kinds that are the basis of phenomenal consciousness in clear cases - when subjects are completely confident and we have no reason to doubt their authority - and look to see whether those neural natural kinds exist within Fodorian modules. But a puzzle arises: Do we include the machinery underlying reportability within the neural natural kinds of the clear cases? If the answer is "Yes," then there can be no phenomenally conscious representations in Fodorian modules. But how can we know if the answer is "Yes"? The suggested methodology requires an answer to the question it was supposed to answer! This target article argues for an abstract solution to the problem and exhibits a source of empirical data that is relevant, data that show that in a certain sense phenomenal consciousness overflows cognitive accessibility. I argue that we can find a neural realizer of this overflow if we assume that the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness does not include the neural basis of cognitive accessibility and that this assumption is justified (other things being equal) by the explanations it allows.

715 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Intangible Heritage as Metacultural Production (IHMP) is presented as a Metaculture Production approach to the preservation of the IHMP.
Abstract: (2004). Intangible Heritage as Metacultural Production1. Museum International: Vol. 56, No. 1-2, pp. 52-65.

418 citations


Cites background from "Languages of Art: An Approach to a ..."

  • ...It could be said that the tangible heritage list is dedicated to the autographic and the intangible list to the allographic.(34)...

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model to describe the neural dynamics responsible for odor recognition and discrimination is developed and it is hypothesized that chaotic behavior serves as the essential ground state for the neural perceptual apparatus and a mechanism for acquiring new forms of patterned activity corresponding to new learned odors is proposed.
Abstract: Recent “connectionist” models provide a new explanatory alternative to the digital computer as a model for brain function. Evidence from our EEG research on the olfactory bulb suggests that the brain may indeed use computational mechanisms like those found in connectionist models. In the present paper we discuss our data and develop a model to describe the neural dynamics responsible for odor recognition and discrimination. The results indicate the existence of sensory- and motor-specific information in the spatial dimension of EEG activity and call for new physiological metaphors and techniques of analysis. Special emphasis is placed in our model on chaotic neural activity. We hypothesize that chaotic behavior serves as the essential ground state for the neural perceptual apparatus, and we propose a mechanism for acquiring new forms of patterned activity corresponding to new learned odors. Finally, some of the implications of our neural model for behavioral theories are briefly discussed. Our research, in concert with the connectionist work, encourages a reevaluation of explanatory models that are based only on the digital computer metaphor.

1,797 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
D. Moody1
TL;DR: A set of principles for designing cognitively effective visual notations: ones that are optimized for human communication and problem solving are defined, which form a design theory, called the Physics of Notations, which focuses on the physical properties of notations rather than their logical properties.
Abstract: Visual notations form an integral part of the language of software engineering (SE). Yet historically, SE researchers and notation designers have ignored or undervalued issues of visual representation. In evaluating and comparing notations, details of visual syntax are rarely discussed. In designing notations, the majority of effort is spent on semantics, with graphical conventions largely an afterthought. Typically, no design rationale, scientific or otherwise, is provided for visual representation choices. While SE has developed mature methods for evaluating and designing semantics, it lacks equivalent methods for visual syntax. This paper defines a set of principles for designing cognitively effective visual notations: ones that are optimized for human communication and problem solving. Together these form a design theory, called the Physics of Notations as it focuses on the physical (perceptual) properties of notations rather than their logical (semantic) properties. The principles were synthesized from theory and empirical evidence from a wide range of fields and rest on an explicit theory of how visual notations communicate. They can be used to evaluate, compare, and improve existing visual notations as well as to construct new ones. The paper identifies serious design flaws in some of the leading SE notations, together with practical suggestions for improving them. It also showcases some examples of visual notation design excellence from SE and other fields.

1,200 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work, exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies, and proposes a new agenda for graphical representation research.
Abstract: Advances in graphical technology have now made it possible for us to interact with information in innovative ways, most notably by exploring multimedia environments and by manipulating three-dimensional virtual worlds. Many benefits have been claimed for this new kind of interactivity, a general assumption being that learning and cognitive processing are facilitated. We point out, however, that little is known about the cognitive value ofanygraphical representations, be they good old-fashioned (e.g. diagrams) or more advanced (e.g. animations, multimedia, virtual reality). In our paper, we critique the disparate literature on graphical representations, focusing on four representative studies. Our analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work, exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies. As an alternative we propose a new agenda for graphical representation research. This builds on the nascent theoretical approach within cognitive science that analyses the role played by external representations in relation to internal mental ones. We outline some of the central properties of this relationship that are necessary for the processing of graphical representations. Finally, we consider how this analysis can inform the selection and design of both traditional and advanced forms of graphical technology.

1,072 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This target article argues for an abstract solution to the problem and exhibits a source of empirical data that is relevant, data that show that in a certain sense phenomenal consciousness overflows cognitive accessibility and can be found a neural realizer of this overflow.
Abstract: How can we disentangle the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness from the neural machinery of the cognitive access that underlies reports of phenomenal consciousness? We see the problem in stark form if we ask how we can tell whether representations inside a Fodorian module are phenomenally conscious. The methodology would seem straightforward: Find the neural natural kinds that are the basis of phenomenal consciousness in clear cases - when subjects are completely confident and we have no reason to doubt their authority - and look to see whether those neural natural kinds exist within Fodorian modules. But a puzzle arises: Do we include the machinery underlying reportability within the neural natural kinds of the clear cases? If the answer is "Yes," then there can be no phenomenally conscious representations in Fodorian modules. But how can we know if the answer is "Yes"? The suggested methodology requires an answer to the question it was supposed to answer! This target article argues for an abstract solution to the problem and exhibits a source of empirical data that is relevant, data that show that in a certain sense phenomenal consciousness overflows cognitive accessibility. I argue that we can find a neural realizer of this overflow if we assume that the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness does not include the neural basis of cognitive accessibility and that this assumption is justified (other things being equal) by the explanations it allows.

715 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Intangible Heritage as Metacultural Production (IHMP) is presented as a Metaculture Production approach to the preservation of the IHMP.
Abstract: (2004). Intangible Heritage as Metacultural Production1. Museum International: Vol. 56, No. 1-2, pp. 52-65.

418 citations