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Journal ArticleDOI

Large scale climate oscillations and mesoscale surface meteorological variability in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin

19 Sep 2014-Journal of Hydrology (Elsevier)-Vol. 517, pp 700-714

AbstractSummary The “water wars” between Alabama, Georgia, and Florida over water restrictions and allocation in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACF) stem, in part, from the occurrence of several droughts in the 1980s, the dramatic increase in water use in the northern basin around Atlanta, and increased agricultural usage in the central basin. This study examines relationships between available surface climatological variables connected to evapotranspiration and climatic oscillations using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Canonical loadings and cross loadings from CCA are evaluated in two tests using temperature and precipitation data and four climate oscillations – the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). In the first test, the six-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and all four seasons of the four climate oscillations from every subbasin in the ACF are evaluated, revealing relationships mostly with the AMO and NAO, and primarily with temperatures. In order to focus more on precipitation and the variance among the different temporal scales of the SPI, Test Two looks at the relationship between all four SPI variations and all four seasons of the climate oscillations from the extreme northern and southern subbasins. Test Two shows the twenty-four month SPI has the largest loadings and variance explained, which may be contributed to the longer frequencies in the AMO and PDO. The southern part of the basin is largely influenced by SOI, while the northern subbasin the AMO and PDO. Concurrent relationships between the same season of the climate oscillation and meteorological variable confirm previously researched directions of the relationships between the oscillation and precipitation or temperature in both Test One and Test Two.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Many drought indices were proposed to describe drought characteristics, but only few had considered environmental changes. In an attempt to incorporate climate change into meteorological drought index, a nonstationary Gamma distribution with climate indices as covariates was developed for fitting precipitation data and then used for calculating a Nonstationary Standardized Precipitation Index (NSPI) in this study. The performances of the NSPI were compared with those of the traditional Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), showing that the NSPI capable of taking climate variations into account is more robust than the traditional SPI. Focusing on the Luanhe River basin, historical drought events were described and assessed based on the NSPI and traditional SPI. Moreover, drought characteristics, including drought frequency, peak, duration, and magnitude, were calculated by using the two indices. The results in this study indicated that NSPI using climate indices as covariates could capture drought characteristics in the Luanhe River basin, and this new drought index provides a new concept for constructing the drought index that can effectively adapt to a changing environment.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Identifying the links between variations in large-scale climate patterns and precipitation is of tremendous assistance in characterizing surplus or deficit of precipitation, which is especially important for evaluation of local water resources and ecosystems in semi-humid and semi-arid regions. Restricted by current limited knowledge on underlying mechanisms, statistical correlation methods are often used rather than physical based model to characterize the connections. Nevertheless, available correlation methods are generally unable to reveal the interactions among a wide range of climate oscillations and associated effects on precipitation, especially on extreme precipitation. In this work, a probabilistic analysis approach by means of a state-of-the-art Copula-based joint probability distribution is developed to characterize the aggregated behaviors for large-scale climate patterns and their connections to precipitation. This method is employed to identify the complex connections between climate patterns (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) and seasonal precipitation over a typical semi-humid and semi-arid region, the Haihe River Basin in China. Results show that the interactions among multiple climate oscillations are non-uniform in most seasons and phases. Certain joint extreme phases can significantly trigger extreme precipitation (flood and drought) owing to the amplification effect among climate oscillations.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The interactions between a range of large-scale climate oscillations and their quantitative links with precipitation are basic prerequisites to understand the hydrologic cycle. Restricted by the current limited knowledge on underlying mechanisms, statistical methods (e.g. correlation methods) are often used rather than a physical-based model. However, available correlation methods generally fail to explain the interactions among a wide range of climate oscillations and associated effects on the water cycle. This study presents a new probabilistic analysis approach by means of a state-of-the-art Copula-based joint probability distribution to characterize the aggregated behaviors for large-scale climate patterns and their connections to precipitation. We applied this method to identify the complex connections between climate patterns (westerly circulation (WEC), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) and seasonal precipitation over a typical endorheic region, the Tarim River Basin in central Asia. Results show that the interactions among multiple climate oscillations are non-uniform in most seasons and phases. Certain joint extreme phases can significantly trigger extremes (flood and drought) owing to the amplification effect among climate oscillations. We further find that the connection is mainly due to the complex effects of climatic and topographical factors.

15 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: . This study evaluated the influence of low-frequency oscillations, that are linked to large-scale oceanographic–atmospheric processes, on streamflow variability in small tropical coastal mountain rivers of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. We used data from six rivers that had > 32 years of complete, continuous monthly streamflow records. This investigation employed spectral analyses to (1) explore temporal characteristics of streamflow variability, (2) estimate the net contribution to the energy spectrum of low-frequency oscillations to streamflow anomalies, and (3) analyze the linkages between streamflow anomalies and large-scale, low-frequency oceanographic–atmospheric processes. Wavelet analyses indicate that the 8–12-year component exhibited a quasi-stationary state, with a peak of maximum power between 1985 and 2005. These oscillations were nearly in phase in all rivers. Maximum power peaks occurred for the Palomino and Rancheria rivers in 1985 and 1995, respectively. The wavelet spectrum highlights a change in river variability patterns between 1995 and 2015, characterized by a shift towards the low-frequency oscillations' domain (8–12 years). The net contribution of these oscillations to the energy spectrum was as high as 51 %, a value much larger than previously thought for rivers in northwestern South America. The simultaneous occurrence of hydrologic oscillations, as well as the increase in the amplitude of the 8–12-year band, defined periods of extremely anomalous wet seasons during 1989–1990, 1998–2002 and 2010–2011, reflecting the role of low-frequency oscillations in modulating streamflow variability in these rivers. Cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence revealed high common powers and significant coherences in low-frequency bands ( >96 months) between streamflow anomalies and Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Tropical North Atlantic Index (TNA). These results show the role of large-scale, low-frequency oceanographic–climate processes in modulating the long-term hydrological variability of these rivers.

10 citations


References
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Book
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TL;DR: A separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved without requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.
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5,672 citations


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4,118 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Orthogonally rotated principle component analysis (RPCA) of Northern Hemisphere 1-month mean 700 mb heights is used to identify and describe the seasonality and persistence of the major modes of interannual variability. The analysis is detailed and comprehensive, in that 1) a high resolution, approximately equal-area 358-point grid is used for the virtually maximum possible 35-year period of record, 2) a positive bias in the NMC data base in the early 1950s in the subtropics is largely eliminated for the first time, and 3) homogeneous, separate analyses of each month of the year are carried out, detailing the mouth-to-month changes in the dominant circulation patterns. Winter results are similar to those of other recent RPCA and teleconnection studies except that some less obvious patterns are identified and further detail of the better-known patterns is provided. Two north-south dipole patterns are found over the Pacific Ocean (West Pacific Oscillation and East Pacific pattern) and over the Atla...

3,050 citations