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Journal ArticleDOI

Laser-induced shock compression of monocrystalline copper: characterization and analysis

14 Mar 2003-Acta Materialia (Pergamon)-Vol. 51, Iss: 5, pp 1211-1228

AbstractControlled laser experiments were used to generate ultra-short shock pulses of approximately 5 ns duration in monocrystalline copper specimens with [001] orientation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed features consistent with previous observations of shock-compressed copper, albeit at pulse durations in the µs regime. At pressures of 12 and 20 GPa, the structure consists primarily of dislocation cells; at 40 GPa, twinning and stacking-fault bundles are the principal defect structures; and at a pressure of 55–60 GPa, the structure shows micro-twinning and the effects of thermal recovery (elongated sub-grains). The results suggest that the defect structure is generated at the shock front; the substructures observed are similar to the ones at much larger durations. The dislocation generation is discussed, providing a constitutive description of plastic deformation. It is proposed that thermally activated loop nucleation at the front is the mechanism for dislocation generation. A calculational method for dislocation densities is proposed, based on nucleation of loops at the shock front and their extension due to the residual shear stresses behind the front. Calculated dislocation densities compare favorably with experimentally observed results. It is proposed that simultaneous diffraction by Laue and Bragg of different lattice planes at the shock front can give the strain state and the associated stress level at the front. This enables the calculation of the plastic flow resistance at the imposed strain rate. An estimated strength of 435 MPa is obtained, for a strain rate of 1.3 × 10 7 s 1 . The threshold stress for deformation twinning in shock compression is calculated from the constitutive equations for slip, twinning, and the Swegle–Grady relationship. The calculated threshold pressure for the [001] orientation is 16.3 GPa.  2003 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Topics: Slip (materials science) (54%), Crystal twinning (53%), Strain rate (53%), Deformation (engineering) (52%), Nucleation (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nanocrystalline (nc) materials can be defined as solids with grain sizes in the range of 1–100 nm. Contrary to coarse-grained metals, which become more difficult to twin with decreasing grain size, nanocrystalline face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals become easier to twin with decreasing grain size, reaching a maximum twinning probability, and then become more difficult to twin when the grain size decreases further, i.e. exhibiting an inverse grain-size effect on twinning. Molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations have revealed that the mechanisms of deformation twinning in nanocrystalline metals are different from those in their coarse-grained counterparts. Consequently, there are several types of deformation twins that are observed in nanocrystalline materials, but not in coarse-grained metals. It has also been reported that deformation twinning can be utilized to enhance the strength and ductility of nanocrystalline materials. This paper reviews all aspects of deformation twinning in nanocrystalline metals, including deformation twins observed by molecular dynamics simulations and experiments, twinning mechanisms, factors affecting the twinning, analytical models on the nucleation and growth of deformation twins, interactions between twins and dislocations, and the effects of twins on mechanical and other properties. It is the authors’ intention for this review paper to serve not only as a valuable reference for researchers in the field of nanocrystalline metals and alloys, but also as a textbook for the education of graduate students.

793 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Micro-structural evolution and grain refinement in ANSI 304 stainless steel subjected to multiple laser shock processing (LSP) impacts were investigated by means of cross-sectional optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations. The plastic strain-induced grain refinement mechanism of the face-centered cubic (fcc) materials with very low stacking fault energy was identified. The micro-structure was obviously refined due to the ultra-high plastic strain induced by multiple LSP impacts. The minimum grain size in the top surface was about 50–200 nm. Multidirectional mechanical twin matrix (MT)–MT intersections led to grain subdivision at the top surface during multiple LSP impacts. Furthermore, a novel structure with submicron triangular blocks was found at the top surface subjected to three LSP impacts. The grain refinement process along the depth direction after multiple LSP impacts can be described as follows: (i) formation of planar dislocation arrays (PDAs) and stacking faults along multiple directions due to the pile up of dislocation lines; (ii) formation of submicron triangular blocks (or irregularly shaped blocks) by the intersection of MT–MT (or MT–PDA or PDA–PDA) along multiple directions; (iii) transformation of MTs into subgrain boundaries; (iv) evolution by continuous dynamic recrystallization of subgrain boundaries to refined grain boundaries. The experimental results and analyses indicate that a high strain with an ultra-high strain rate play a crucial role in the grain refinement process of fcc materials subjected to multiple LSP impacts.

284 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Laser shock experiments conducted at an energy density of 61 MJ/m 2 revealed void initiation and growth at stress application times of approximately 10 ns. It is shown that void growth cannot be accomplished by vacancy diffusion under these conditions, even taking into account shock heating. An alternative, dislocation-emission-based mechanism, is proposed for void growth. The shear stresses are highest at 45 to the void surface and decay with increasing distance from the surface. Two mechanisms accounting for the generation of geometrically necessary dislocations required for void growth are proposed: prismatic and shear loops. A criterion for the emission of a dislocation from the surface of a void under remote tension is formulated, analogous to Rice and Thomsons criterion for crack blunting by dislocation emission from the crack tip. The critical stress is calculated for the emission of a single dislocation and a dislocation pair for any size of initial void. It is shown that the critical stress for dislocation emission decreases with increasing void size. Dislocations with a wider core are more easily emitted than dislocations with a narrow core.

259 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 2005-Science
TL;DR: Molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline copper under shock loading show an unexpected ultrahigh strength behind the shock front, with values up to twice those at low pressure.
Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline copper under shock loading show an unexpected ultrahigh strength behind the shock front, with values up to twice those at low pressure. Partial and perfect dislocations, twinning, and debris from dislocation interactions are found behind the shock front. Results are interpreted in terms of the pressure dependence of both deformation mechanisms active at these grain sizes, namely dislocation-based plasticity and grain boundary sliding. These simulations, together with new shock experiments on nanocrystalline nickel, raise the possibility of achieving ultrahard materials during and after shock loading.

258 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The plastic deformation behavior and the effects of the impact time on the LY2 aluminum (Al) alloy during multiple laser shock processing (LSP) impacts were investigated. The residual stress in the near-surface region was determined by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the micro-structural features of the hardening layer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the micro-structure was obviously refined due to the ultra-high plastic strain induced by multiple LSP impacts. The minimum grain size in the top surface after multiple LSP impacts was about 100–200 nm. The grain refinement process after multiple LSP impacts can be described as follows: (i) the formation and development of dislocation lines in original grains; (ii) dislocation tangles (DTs) and the formation of dense dislocation walls (DDWs); (iii) transformation of DTs and DDWs into subgrain boundaries; and (iv) evolution of the continuous dynamic recrystallization in subgrain boundaries to refined grain boundaries.

251 citations


References
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Book
27 Sep 1994
Abstract: Dynamic Deformation and Waves. Elastic Waves. Plastic Waves. Shock Waves. Shock Waves: Equations of State. Differential Form of Conservation Equations and Numerical Solutions to More Complex Problems. Shock Wave Attenuation, Interaction, and Reflection. Shock Wave-Induced Phase Transformations and Chemical Changes. Explosive-Material Interactions. Detonation. Experimental Techniques: Diagnostic Tools. Experimental Techniques: Methods to Produce Dynamic Deformation. Plastic Deformation at High Strain Rates. Plastic Deformation in Shock Waves. Shear Bands (Thermoplastic Shear Instabilities). Dynamic Fracture. Applications. Indexes.

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"Laser-induced shock compression of ..." refers background or methods in this paper

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  • ...The dislocation density can be expressed as a function of pressure, P, through one of the equations obtained directly from the Rankine–Hugoniot equations and the equation of state [22]:...

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  • ...In a similar manner, the residual temperature, TR, can be obtained from [22]:...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An improved description of copper‐ and iron‐cylinder impact (Taylor) test results has been obtained through the use of dislocation‐mechanics‐based constitutive relations in the Lagrangian material dynamics computer program EPIC‐2. The effects of strain hardening, strain‐rate hardening, and thermal softening based on thermal activation analysis have been incorporated into a reasonably accurate constitutive relation for copper. The relation has a relatively simple expression and should be applicable to a wide range of fcc materials. The effect of grain size is included. A relation for iron is also presented. It also has a simple expression and is applicable to other bcc materials but is presently incomplete, since the important effect of deformation twinning in bcc materials is not included. A possible method of acounting for twinning is discussed and will be reported on more fully in future work. A main point made here is that each material structure type (fcc, bcc, hcp) will have its own constitutive beha...

1,506 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
James R. Rice1
Abstract: Dislocation nucleation from a stressed crack tip is analyzed based on the Peierls concept. A periodic relation between shear stress and atomic shear displacement is assumed to hold along the most highly stressed slip plane emanating from a crack tip. This allows some small slip displacement to occur near the tip in response to small applied loading and, with increase in loading, the incipient dislocation configuration becomes unstable and leads to a fully formed dislocation which is driven away from the crack. An exact solution for the loading at that nucleation instability is developed via the J -integral for the case when the crack and slip planes coincide, and an approximate solution is given when they do not. Solutions are also given for emission of dissociated dislocations, especially partial dislocation pairs in fcc crystals. The level of applied stress intensity factors required for dislocation nucleation is shown to be proportional to √γ us , where γ us , the unstable stacking energy, is a new solid state parameter identified by the analysis. It is the maximum energy encountered in the block-like sliding along a slip plane, in the Burgers vector direction, of one half of a crystal relative to the other. Approximate estimates of γ us are summarized and the results are used to evaluate brittle vs ductile response in fcc and bcc metals in terms of the competition between dislocation nucleation and Griffith cleavage at a crack tip. The predictions seem compatible with known behavior and also show that in many cases solids which are predicted to first cleave under pure mode I loading should instead first emit dislocations when that loading includes very small amounts of mode II and III shear. The analysis in this paper also reveals a feature of the near-tip slip distribution corresponding to the saddle point energy configuration for cracks that are loaded below the nucleation threshold, as is of interest for thermal activation.

1,198 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A constitutive approach is developed that predicts the critical stress for twinning as a function of external (temperature, strain rate) and internal (grain size, stacking-fault energy) parameters. Plastic defor- mation by slip and twinning are considered as competitive mechanisms. The twinning stress is equated to the slip stress based on the plastic flow by thermally assisted movement of dislocations over obstacles, which leads to successful prediction of the slip-twinning transition. The model is applied to body centered cubic, face centered cubic, and hexagonal metals and alloys: Fe, Cu, brasses, and Ti, respectively. A constitutive expression for the twinning stress in BCC metals is developed using dislocation emission from a source and the formation of pile-ups, as rate-controlling mechanism. Employing an Eshelby-type analysis, the critical size of twin nucleus and twinning stress are correlated to the twin-boundary energy, which is directly related to the stacking-fault energy (SFE) for FCC metals. The effects of grain size and SFE are examined and the results indicate that the grain-scale pile-ups are not the source of the stress concentrations giving rise to twinning in FCC metals. The constitutive description of the slip-twinning transition are incorporated into the Weertman-Ashby deformation mechanism maps, thereby enabling the introduction of a twinning domain. This is illustrated for titanium with a grain size of 100 µm.  2001 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1,195 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1940
Abstract: Calculations are made of the size of a dislocation and of the critical shear stress for its motion.

1,155 citations