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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14051169

Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Polymers: Quantitative Research Direction Indices.

02 Mar 2021-Materials (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 14, Iss: 5, pp 1169
Abstract: Research on Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of polymer powder feedstocks has raised over the last decade due to the increased utilization of the fabricated parts in aerospace, automotive, electronics, and healthcare applications. A total of 600 Science Citation Indexed articles were published on the topic of L-PBF of polymer powder feedstocks in the last decade, being cited more than 10,000 times leading to an h-index of 46. This study statistically evaluates the 100 most cited articles to extract reported material, process, and as-built part properties to analyze the research trends. PA12, PEEK, and TPU are the most employed polymer powder feedstocks, while size, flowability, and thermal behavior are the standardly reported material properties. Likewise, process properties such as laser power, scanning speed, hatch spacing, powder layer thickness, volumetric energy density, and areal energy density are extracted and evaluated. In addition, material and process properties of the as-built parts such as tensile test, flexural test, and volumetric porosity contents are analyzed. The incorporation of additives is found to be an effective route to enhance mechanical and functional properties. Carbon-based additives are typically employed in applications where mechanical properties are essential. Carbon fibers, Ca-phosphates, and SiO2 are the most reported additives in the evaluated SCI-expanded articles for L-PBF of polymer powder feedstocks. A comprehensive data matrix is extracted from the evaluated SCI-index publications, and a principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to explore correlations between reported material, process, and as-built parts.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14174892
27 Aug 2021-Materials
Abstract: In recent years, the application field of laser powder bed fusion of metals and polymers extends through an increasing variability of powder compositions in the market. New powder formulations such as nanoparticle (NP) additivated powder feedstocks are available today. Interestingly, they behave differently along with the entire laser powder bed fusion (PBF-LB) process chain, from flowability over absorbance and microstructure formation to processability and final part properties. Recent studies show that supporting NPs on metal and polymer powder feedstocks enhances processability, avoids crack formation, refines grain size, increases functionality, and improves as-built part properties. Although several inter-laboratory studies (ILSs) on metal and polymer PBF-LB exist, they mainly focus on mechanical properties and primarily ignore nano-additivated feedstocks or standardized assessment of powder feedstock properties. However, those studies must obtain reliable data to validate each property metric’s repeatability and reproducibility limits related to the PBF-LB process chain. We herein propose the design of a large-scale ILS to quantify the effect of nanoparticle additivation on powder characteristics, process behavior, microstructure, and part properties in PBF-LB. Besides the work and sample flow to organize the ILS, the test methods to measure the NP-additivated metal and polymer powder feedstock properties and resulting part properties are defined. A research data management (RDM) plan is designed to extract scientific results from the vast amount of material, process, and part data. The RDM focuses not only on the repeatability and reproducibility of a metric but also on the FAIR principle to include findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable data/meta-data in additive manufacturing. The proposed ILS design gives access to principal component analysis (PCA) to compute the correlations between the material–process–microstructure–part properties.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/POLYM13224046
Rupak Dua1, Zuri Rashad1, Joy Spears1, Grace Dunn  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
22 Nov 2021-Polymers
Abstract: Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is an organic polymer that has excellent mechanical, chemical properties and can be additively manufactured (3D-printed) with ease. The use of 3D-printed PEEK has been growing in many fields. This article systematically reviews the current status of 3D-printed PEEK that has been used in various areas, including medical, chemical, aerospace, and electronics. A search of the use of 3D-printed PEEK articles published until September 2021 in various fields was performed using various databases. After reviewing the articles, and those which matched the inclusion criteria set for this systematic review, we found that the printing of PEEK is mainly performed by fused filament fabrication (FFF) or fused deposition modeling (FDM) printers. Based on the results of this systematic review, it was concluded that PEEK is a versatile material, and 3D-printed PEEK is finding applications in numerous industries. However, most of the applications are still in the research phase. Still, given how the research on PEEK is progressing and its additive manufacturing, it will soon be commercialized for many applications in numerous industries.

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Topics: Peek (56.99%), Fused filament fabrication (54%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14216464
28 Oct 2021-Materials
Abstract: A 3D printer in FDM technology allows printing with two nozzles, which creates an opportunity to produce multi-material elements. Printing from two materials requires special consideration of the interface zone generated between their geometrical boundaries. This article aims to present the possibility of printing with PLA and TPU using commercially available filaments and software to obtain the best possible bond strength between two different polymers with respect to printing parameters, surface pattern (due to the material contact surface’s roughness), and the order of layer application. The interaction at the interface of two surfaces of two different filaments (PLA-TPU and TPU-PLA) and six combinations of patterns were tested by printing seven replicas for each. A total of 12 combinations were obtained. By analyzing pairs of samples (the same patterns, different order of materials), the results for the TPU/PLA samples were better or very close to the results for PLA/TPU. The best variants of pattern combinations were distinguished. Well-chosen printing parameters can prevent a drop in parts efficiency compared to component materials (depending on the materials combination).

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14185322
15 Sep 2021-Materials
Abstract: The great interest, within the fields of research and industry, in enhancing the range and functionality of polymer powders for laser powder bed fusion (LB-PBF-P) increases the need for material modifications. To exploit the full potential of the additivation method of feedstock powders with nanoparticles, the influence of nanoparticles on the LB-PBF process and the material behavior must be understood. In this study, the impact of the quantity and dispersion quality of carbon nanoparticles deposited on polyamide 12 particles is investigated using tensile and cubic specimens manufactured under the same process conditions. The nano-additives are added through dry coating and colloidal deposition. The specimens are analyzed by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry, polarized light and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and micro-computed tomography. The results show that minute amounts (0.005 vol%) of highly dispersed carbon nanoparticles shift the mechanical properties to higher ductility at the expense of tensile strength. Despite changes in crystallinity due to nano-additives, the crystalline phases of polyamide 12 are retained. Layer bonding and part densities strongly depend on the quantity and dispersion quality of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticle loadings for CO2 laser-operated PBF show only minor changes in material properties, while the potential is greater at lower laser wavelengths.

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Topics: Tensile testing (55%), Ultimate tensile strength (53%), Ductility (53%) ... show more

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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.7B00074
30 Jul 2017-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) alias 3D printing translates computer-aided design (CAD) virtual 3D models into physical objects. By digital slicing of CAD, 3D scan, or tomography data, AM builds objects layer by layer without the need for molds or machining. AM enables decentralized fabrication of customized objects on demand by exploiting digital information storage and retrieval via the Internet. The ongoing transition from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing prompts new challenges for mechanical engineers and materials scientists alike. Because polymers are by far the most utilized class of materials for AM, this Review focuses on polymer processing and the development of polymers and advanced polymer systems specifically for AM. AM techniques covered include vat photopolymerization (stereolithography), powder bed fusion (SLS), material and binder jetting (inkjet and aerosol 3D printing), sheet lamination (LOM), extrusion (FDM, 3D dispensing, 3D fiber deposition, and 3D plotting), and 3D bioprinting....

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Topics: Rapid prototyping (59%), 3D printing (56.99%), Stereolithography (56%)

1,309 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ACTBIO.2010.06.024
Bin Duan1, Min Wang1, Wen You Zhou1, W. L. Cheung1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Dec 2010-Acta Biomaterialia
Abstract: Bionanocomposites formed by combining biodegradable polymers and nanosized osteoconductive inorganic solids have been regarded as promising biomimetic systems which possess much improved structural and functional properties for bone tissue regeneration. In this study three-dimensional nanocomposite scaffolds based on calcium phosphate (Ca-P)/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp)/poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanocomposite microspheres were successfully fabricated using selective laser sintering, which is a rapid prototyping technology. The sintered scaffolds had controlled material microstructure, totally interconnected porous structure and high porosity. The morphology and mechanical properties of Ca-P/PHBV and CHAp/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds as well as PHBV and PLLA polymer scaffolds were studied. In vitro biological evaluation showed that SaOS-2 cells had high cell viability and normal morphology and phenotype after 3 and 7 days culture on all scaffolds. The incorporation of Ca-P nanoparticles significantly improved cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity for Ca-P/PHBV scaffolds, whereas CHAp/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds exhibited a similar level of cell response compared with PLLA polymer scaffolds. The nanocomposite scaffolds provide a biomimetic environment for osteoblastic cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation and have great potential for bone tissue engineering applications.

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Topics: Nanocomposite (51%)

303 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/POLYM11101667
12 Oct 2019-Polymers
Abstract: Composites have been found to be the most promising and discerning material available in this century. Presently, composites reinforced with fibers of synthetic or natural materials are gaining more importance as demands for lightweight materials with high strength for specific applications are growing in the market. Fiber-reinforced polymer composite offers not only high strength to weight ratio, but also reveals exceptional properties such as high durability; stiffness; damping property; flexural strength; and resistance to corrosion, wear, impact, and fire. These wide ranges of diverse features have led composite materials to find applications in mechanical, construction, aerospace, automobile, biomedical, marine, and many other manufacturing industries. Performance of composite materials predominantly depends on their constituent elements and manufacturing techniques, therefore, functional properties of various fibers available worldwide, their classifications, and the manufacturing techniques used to fabricate the composite materials need to be studied in order to figure out the optimized characteristic of the material for the desired application. An overview of a diverse range of fibers, their properties, functionality, classification, and various fiber composite manufacturing techniques is presented to discover the optimized fiber-reinforced composite material for significant applications. Their exceptional performance in the numerous fields of applications have made fiber-reinforced composite materials a promising alternative over solitary metals or alloys.

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Topics: Specific strength (53%)

249 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSIF.2010.0127.FOCUS
Bin Duan1, Min Wang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Integrating an advanced manufacturing technique, nanocomposite material and controlled delivery of growth factor to form multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds was investigated in this study. Based on calcium phosphate (Ca–P)/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocomposite microspheres, three-dimensional Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds with customized architecture, controlled porosity and totally interconnected porous structure were successfully fabricated using selective laser sintering (SLS), one of the rapid prototyping technologies. The cytocompatibility of sintered Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds, as well as PHBV polymer scaffolds, was studied. For surface modification of nanocomposite scaffolds, gelatin was firstly physically entrapped onto the scaffold surface and heparin was subsequently immobilized on entrapped gelatin. The surface-modification improved the wettability of scaffolds and provided specific binding site between conjugated heparin and the growth factor recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The surface-modified Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-2 significantly enhanced the alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation markers in gene expression of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. Together with osteoconductive nanocomposite material and controlled growth factor delivery strategies, the use of SLS technique to form complex scaffolds will provide a promising route towards individualized bone tissue regeneration.

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Topics: Bone regeneration (52%), Nanocomposite (50%)

130 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/IJN.S50685
Yan Xia1, Panyu Zhou, Xiaosong Cheng, Yang Xie  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The regeneration of functional tissue in osseous defects is a formidable challenge in orthopedic surgery. In the present study, a novel biomimetic composite scaffold, here called nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly-e-caprolactone (PCL) was fabricated using a selective laser sintering technique. The macrostructure, morphology, and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds exhibited predesigned, well-ordered macropores and interconnected micropores. The scaffolds have a range of porosity from 78.54% to 70.31%, and a corresponding compressive strength of 1.38 MPa to 3.17 MPa. Human bone marrow stromal cells were seeded onto the nano-HA/PCL or PCL scaffolds and cultured for 28 days in vitro. As indicated by the level of cell attachment and proliferation, the nano-HA/PCL showed excellent biocompatibility, comparable to that of PCL scaffolds. The hydrophilicity, mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin Red S staining indicated that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds are more bioactive than the PCL scaffolds in vitro. Measurements of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) release kinetics showed that after nano-HA was added, the material increased the rate of rhBMP-2 release. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds, both nano-HA/PCL scaffolds and PCL scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femur defects for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The wounds were studied radiographically and histologically. The in vivo results showed that both nano-HA/PCL composite scaffolds and PCL scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility. However, the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation more than PCL scaffolds and fulfilled all the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Thus, they show large potential for use in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery.

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Topics: Bone regeneration (53%), Biocompatibility (50%)

117 Citations