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Book ChapterDOI

Latent Sousveillance and the Rules of Digital Media Engagement

01 Jan 2021-pp 23-44
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate the revelatory, narrative capacity of bystander video of police excessive force shared through social media, and its relationship with mainstream and police media representations of police image work.
Abstract: This chapter demonstrates the revelatory, narrative capacity of bystander video of police excessive force shared through social media, and its relationship with mainstream and police media representations of police ‘image work’. This hierarchical sousveillance can challenge hegemonic mainstream and police media agenda-setting and catalyse direct action, testing police credibility through the diverse range of perspectives characteristic of the ‘social media test’. Analysis of social and mainstream media representations of a case of police excessive force at the 2013 Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Parade, combined with police and non-police responses to in-depth interviews, shows the force of individual stories that can be glossed in police aggregate data published in mainstream news media. The chapter considers the power of ‘latent’ sousveillance; technological scrutiny of authority that while lawful may not be widely known. In this context, the lawful capacity for civilians to generally film police operations in public, that in conjunction with the capacity to share content through social media reached a critical mass in 2013. The chapter argues, and notes the challenges in achieving, the consistency required across representations of the police image to sustain public trust and confidence in police and police legitimacy in a multi-media saturated society.
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Book
01 Jan 1976
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors take up the concepts of altruistic and selfish behaviour; the genetical definition of selfish interest; the evolution of aggressive behaviour; kinship theory; sex ratio theory; reciprocal altruism; deceit; and the natural selection of sex differences.
Abstract: Science need not be dull and bogged down by jargon, as Richard Dawkins proves in this entertaining look at evolution. The themes he takes up are the concepts of altruistic and selfish behaviour; the genetical definition of selfish interest; the evolution of aggressive behaviour; kinship theory; sex ratio theory; reciprocal altruism; deceit; and the natural selection of sex differences. Readership: general; students of biology, zoology, animal behaviour, psychology.

10,880 citations

Book
01 Jan 1984

9,241 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1985
TL;DR: In this article, a continuously conveyed series of uniformly dimensioned panels of thin sheet material are counted and stacked from the bottom against an abutment edge of a stationary but rotatable cam plate.
Abstract: A continuously conveyed series of uniformly dimensioned panels of thin sheet material are counted and stacked from the bottom against an abutment edge of a stationary but rotatable cam plate. When a predetermined number of panels is collected in the stack, the cam plate is rotated to lift the stack into a rotating roll nip for conveyance to a second roll nip. Removal of the stack from the proximity of the collecting cam plate is completed by the second roll nip after the collecting cam has resumed a stationary, collecting position.

8,604 citations

Book
01 Nov 1978
TL;DR: Newsworkers decide what news is, why they cover some items but not others, and how they decide what Inand others want to know as discussed by the authors, and the role of consciousness in the construction of social meanings and the organization of experience.
Abstract: PrefaceIn 1954 the Army-McCarthy hearings flickered across the nationrsntelevision sets, displacing soap operas, game shows, and daytimenmovies. I was one of the many children who came home from schoolnto watch that new form of daytime serial. Later I heard the adultsndiscuss the issues at family gatherings. In 1966, partially recallingnthose experiences and prompted by concern about the Vietnam war,nI began to study news. I reasoned that the news media set the framenin which citizens discuss public events and that the quality of civicndebate necessarily depends on the information available. Accordingly,n1 wanted to find out how newsworkers decide what news is, whynthey cover some items but not others, and how they decide what Inand others want to know. In short, I sought to uncover what sociologistsnnow call the latent structure of news.This book is the product of my attempt, over the past elevennyears, to learn about news as the social construction of reality. It is anstudy of the constraints of newswork and of the resources availablento newsworkers. It is a study of newsworkers as professionals and ofnnewspapers and television newsrooms as complex organizations.nAnd it is a study of methods of inquirymhow newsworkers determinenfacts and frame events and debates pertinent to our shared civicnlife.I cannot prove my early supposition that the news media set thencontext in which citizens discuss public issues, but I continue to believenthat they do so. Nor can I prove an early hunch, prompted bynmy participant observation, that news has an even greater impactnupon policy makers and politicians, although I continue to suspectnthat news is an interchange among politicians and policy makers,nnewsworkers, and their organizational superiors, and that the rest ofnus are eavesdroppers on that ongoing conversation. Other researchers,nmore skilled in the study of the mediars effects than I am, maynchoose to present those aspects of news in other volumes. I hope thatnI have offered enough material to facilitate their task.As well as presenting concrete descriptions, examples, andnanalyses of newswork, this book addresses a theoretical debate aboutnthe role of consciousness in the construction of social meanings andnthe organization of experience. With one exception, a brief review ofninterpretative theories appearing on pages 185-92, the debate is readilynaccessible to nonsociologists. Readers who are not concerned withnthe technical issues may skip those few pages and still follow thenthrust of my argument.I was a graduate student at Brandeis University when I begannthis study. I am grateful for the National Institute of Mental HealthnField Training Fellowship that enabled me to conduct the initial participantnobservation on which this book partially draws. As administratornof that program, Samuel Wallace read my field notes regularly.nEverett C. Hughes, Maurice Stein, and Kurt H. Wolff served onnmy dissertation committee. Robert Weiss and student-fellowsnNatalie Allon, Barbara Carter, Robert Emerson, Robert Laufer,nNancy Stoller Shaw, Jerold Starr, and Barrie Thorne providednencouragement and criticism that I still recall. Since the completion of that early work, I have been fortunatenin having other friends and colleagues who offered prompt criticalncomments when I needed them.n n n

3,592 citations

Book
31 Aug 2009
TL;DR: The mass media (including web-based media), Manuel Castells argues, has become the space where political and business power strategies are played out; power now lies in the hands of those who understand or control communication.
Abstract: We live in the midst of a revolution in communication technologies that affects the way in which people feel, think, and behave. The mass media (including web-based media), Manuel Castells argues, has become the space where political and business power strategies are played out; power now lies in the hands of those who understand or control communication. Over the last thirty years, Castells has emerged as one of the world's leading communications theorists. In this, his most far-reaching book for a decade, he explores the nature of power itself, in the new communications environment. His vision encompasses business, media, neuroscience, technology, and, above all, politics. His case histories include global media deregulation, the misinformation that surrounded the invasion of Iraq, environmental movements, the role of the internet in the Obama presidential campaign, and media control in Russia and China. In the new network society of instant messaging, social networking, and blogging--"mass self-communication"--politics is fundamentally media politics. This fact is behind a worldwide crisis of political legitimacy that challenges the meaning of democracy in much of the world. Deeply researched, far-reaching in scope, and incisively argued, this is a book for anyone who wants to understand the dynamics and character of the modern world. "How could Manuel Castells have predicted that now is the time of the perfect storm? I do not know. But I do know that his new book coincides with the largest downturn in global economies since the 1930s, with the most important American election since the 1960s, with a most radical transformation of world politics in many generations, and with the most profound reevaluation of the lives of modern citizens, from what they value to how they communicate. We have become used to Castells' careful scholarship and penetrating analyses but in this new book he cuts deeper into the heart of the matter. Sometimes he provides illuminating answers and where he cannot, he frames the questions that must be answered. This is a powerful and much needed book for a world in crisis."--Antonio Damasio "Manuel Castells unites the mind of a social scientist with the soul of an artist. His trilogy took us to the edge of the millennium. This book takes us beyond to the critical crossroads of the 21st century, where technology, communication, and power converge."--Rosalind Williams, Director, Program on Science, Technology and Society, MIT

2,669 citations