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Journal ArticleDOI

'Law Rome' and 'Golden Delicious' apples differ in their response to preharvest and postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene treatment combinations.

01 Oct 2009-Hortscience (American Society for Horticultural Science)-Vol. 44, Iss: 6, pp 1632-1636

TL;DR: Findings suggest that attached apple fruit of some cultivars may be capable of rapidly generating new ethylene receptors as determined by flesh firmness, starch index, internal ethylene concentration, and soluble solids concentration.

AbstractExperiments were conducted to compare the effects of different preharvest and postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment combinations on 'Law Rome' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit. Preharvest 1-MCP sprays had minimal effects on maturity as determined by flesh firmness, starch index, internal ethylene concentration, and soluble solids concentration. Fruit internal ethylene concentration and firmness loss after 30- to 40-days storage at 0 °C plus 7 days at 20 °C were reduced by preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments. The positive effects of preharvest 1-MCP on postharvest quality of 'Law Rome' declined in fruit that were harvested 3 days or more after spraying, whereas preharvest 1-MCP continued to have a positive effect on postharvest fruit quality of 'Golden Delicious' that were harvested up to 9 days after spraying. The loss in postharvest effects of preharvest 1-MCP treatment on 'Law Rome' at delayed harvests was reinstated by exposing fruit to gaseous 1-MCP on the day of harvest. These findings suggest that attached apple fruit of some cultivars may be capable of rapidly generating new ethylene receptors.

Topics: Preharvest (68%), Postharvest (57%), Fruit tree (54%), 1-Methylcyclopropene (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall, the most important benefit of preharvest 1-MCP treatments on 'Honeycrisp' apples was the reduction in soft scald development, due to the high potential for substantial fruit losses from this disorder.
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the development of soft scald in 'Honeycrisp' apples. In addition, the effects of preharvest 1-MCP on fruit quality at harvest and after storage were examined. For two consecutive years of study, 'Honey- crisp' trees were sprayed preharvest with 1-MCP and fruit were harvested twice during each year. Preharvest 1-MCP treatments had little consistent effect on fruit maturity at the time of harvest. In both years of study, preharvest 1-MCP reduced the incidence of soft scald in 'Honeycrisp' apples after air storage at 0 or 3 8C for 5 or 6 months. Soggy breakdown developed only in the second year of study and high incidences were reduced by preharvest 1-MCP treatments. Preharvest 1-MCP often reduced flesh firmness loss in 'Honeycrisp' during storage, especially during the second year of study, and with 1-MCP application closer to harvest. Malic acid content was often higher in apples with the preharvest 1-MCP spray closer to harvest. Overall, the most important benefit of preharvest 1-MCP treatments on 'Honeycrisp' apples was the reduction in soft scald development. Due to the high potential for substantial fruit losses from this disorder, the use of preharvest 1-MCP sprays on 'Honeycrisp' apples could be very advantageous.

42 citations


Book ChapterDOI
02 Jun 2015

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of ethylene action inhibition (by sprayable formulation of 1-methylcyclopropene; 1-MCP) and ethylene synthesis inhibition (by aminoethoxyvinylglycine; AVG) on preharvest apple fruit maturation. ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees were sprayed with 1-MCP (at 50 or 100 mg L-1)) seven days before anticipated harvest (DBAH), or with AVG (124 mg L-1)) 28 DBAH. Apple trees not sprayed with 1-MCP and AVG were used as control. Fruit were harvested weekly,along five weeks from the 7th day after 1-MCP spraying, and then analyzed in terms of maturity and quality one day after harvest. Fruit maturity and quality attributes when fruit reached the flesh firmness of 71.1 N were estimated by analysis of regression, for each treatment. 1-MCP (50 and 100 mg L-1)) and AVG delayed fruit maturation, by reducing the ethylene production rates, starch degradation, loss of flesh firmness and acidity, skin yellowing, increase of soluble solids content and skin red color development. 1-MCP (100 mg L-1)) and AVG delayed in 6 and 12 days, respectively, the time required for fruit to reach the flesh firmness of 71.1 N on the tree, in comparison to the control. Fruit treated with 1-MCP or AVG had starch index, ethylene production and acidity values similar or smaller than the control, at the date when all treatments achieved the flesh firmness of 71.1 N. The magnitude of 1-MCP effect on flesh firmness was similar to the effect on ethylene production and skin color, and slightly slower on starch degradation. The effects of AVG on ethylene production, skin color and acidity were more substantial than on loss of flesh firmness. The results show that the treatment of ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees with the sprayable formulation of 1-MCP represents an additional method for management of fruit maturation and harvest.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fruit fresh weight, Hunter’s value a, internal ethylene concentration (IEC), flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solids content (SSC) in fruit treated with H arvista TM were not different from those of control fruit at harvest.
Abstract: This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, Harvista TM ) and postharvest 1-MCP (SmartFresh TM ) treatments on the fruit quaitly attributes of codl-stored F‘u (i’j Malus domestica Borkh.) apples. Fruits were exposed to 0, 95, 125, or 250 mg ・L -1 Harvista TM at 3, 2, 1 weeks before harvest (WBH), and treated with 0 or 1 μL・L -1 SmartFresh TM at harvest. Fruit was then stored for up to 180 days at 0 ± 1°C. Fruit fresh weight, Hunter’s value a, internal ethylene concentration (IEC), flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solids content (SSC) in fruit treated with H arvista TM were not different from those of control fruit at harvest. During cold storage, flesh firmness and TA were higher in fruit trea ted with 250 mg・L -1 Harvista TM at 2 and 3 WBH than in control fruit. IEC was 5.5-10.0% lower in fruit treated with 250 mg ・L -1 Harvista TM at 2 and 3 WBH compared with control fruit as storage duration progressed, while SSC was not affected. Furthermore, flesh firmness, TA, and IEC were affected neither by Harvista

11 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...최근 과실을 수확 전 수체에 살포하는 형태의 1-MCP(3.8% a.i.; Harvista TM AgroFresh Inc., PA, USA)가 개발되어 미국 과 캐나다 등에서 ‘McIntosh’, ‘Empire’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Honeycrisp’ 사과에(DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010; McArtney et al., 2009; Watkins et al., 2010; Yuan and Li, 2008) 처리하였을 때 저장 동안 과실의 품질을 유지하는데 우수한 효과를 보인다는 연구가…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG; ReTain®) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; Harvista™) are used to delay apple fruit maturation and ripening, and thereby reduce fruit drop and manage harvest logistics. In this study, ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Empire’ fruit were treated with AVG at four weeks or two weeks, or with 1-MCP one week, prior to the anticipated first harvest date, to assess effects of these chemicals on maturation and ripening in relation to starch degradation. In a second season, ‘Empire’ fruit were treated with either AVG or 1-MCP four weeks and one week prior to the anticipated first harvest. Fruit from this experiment were also harvested to investigate the effects of treatment on ripening in air storage. Cultivar and timing of application influenced the efficacy of both AVG and 1-MCP in delaying the increase of internal ethylene concentration (IEC) and the starch pattern index (SPI), and the decrease of starch concentration, in the fruit. Little effect of treatment was found for the high ethylene producing ‘McIntosh’, with only the SPI being affected on the date of first harvest. ‘Empire’ fruit from trees treated with 1-MCP or AVG had lower IEC and were greener (higher absorbance difference index (IAD) values), and had lower SPIs and higher starch concentrations, but the effects were inconsistent and limited to only some harvest dates. In storage, only 1-MCP applied 10 d before harvest markedly slowed the increase in IEC and the rate of softening. AVG treatment effects on IEC were intermediate, between the one week 1-MCP treatment and the untreated controls and 4 week 1-MCP treatment, while it did not affect softening. Treatments did not affect the rate of starch concentration loss during storage.

7 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biotechnological modifications of ethylene synthesis and of sensitivity to ethylene are promising methods to prevent spoilage of agricultural products such as fruits, whose ripening is induced by ethylene.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Ethylene regulates a multitude of plant processes, ranging from seed germination to organ senescence. Of particular economic importance is the role of ethylene as an inducer of fruit rip...

1,268 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since the discovery of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) as an inhibitor of ethylene action, over 100 studies have examined details of its action, application and effects on ethylene inhibition. This plant growth regulator is a tool that can help scientists make major advances in understanding the role of ethylene in plants. 1-MCP prevents ethylene effects in a broad range of fruits, vegetables and floriculture crops. Effective concentrations are low and range from 2.5 nl l 1 to 1 m ll 1 . Concentration interacts with temperature such that low concentrations of 1-MCP applied over longer durations may be as effective as high concentrations. 1-MCP is most commonly applied at 68/77 8F (20/25 8C), but can be used at lower temperatures in some commodities. Generally, treatment durations of 12/24 h were sufficient to achieve a full response. A variety of factors may need to be considered when using 1-MCP including cultivar, developmental stage, time from harvest to treatment, and multiple applications. Depending on the species being treated, 1-MCP may hav ea variety of effects on respiration, ethylene production, volatile production, chlorophyll degradation and other color changes, protein and membrane changes, softening, disorders and diseases, acidity and sugars. This review compiles what is known about the technological uses for 1-MCP, defines where discrepancies exist between reports, and aims to define areas requiring further study. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

1,038 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that CTR1 interacts with ETR1 in vivo, and that this association is required to turn off the ethylene-signaling pathway.
Abstract: CTR1 encodes a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. The C-terminal domain of CTR1 is similar to the Raf family of protein kinases, but its first two-thirds encodes a novel protein domain. We used a variety of approaches to investigate the function of these two CTR1 domains. Recombinant CTR1 protein was purified from a baculoviral expression system, and shown to possess intrinsic Ser/Thr protein kinase activity with enzymatic properties similar to Raf-1. Deletion of the N-terminal domain did not elevate the kinase activity of CTR1, indicating that, at least in vitro, this domain does not autoinhibit kinase function. Molecular analysis of loss-of-function ctr1 alleles indicated that several mutations disrupt the kinase catalytic domain, and in vitro studies confirmed that at least one of these eliminates kinase activity, which indicates that kinase activity is required for CTR1 function. One missense mutation, ctr1-8, was found to result from an amino acid substitution within a new conserved motif within the N-terminal domain. Ctr1-8 has no detectable effect on the kinase activity of CTR1 in vitro, but rather disrupts the interaction with the ethylene receptor ETR1. This mutation also disrupts the dominant negative effect that results from overexpression of the CTR1 amino-terminal domain in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results suggest that CTR1 interacts with ETR1 in vivo, and that this association is required to turn off the ethylene-signaling pathway.

345 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This analysis suggests that the initial and final enzymatic steps with the biosynthetic pathways are important transcriptional regulation points for aroma production in apple.
Abstract: Ethylene is the major effector of ripening in many fleshy fruits. In apples (Malus x domestica) the addition of ethylene causes a climacteric burst of respiration, an increase in aroma, and softening of the flesh. We have generated a transgenic line of 'Royal Gala' apple that produces no detectable levels of ethylene using antisense ACC OXIDASE, resulting in apples with no ethylene-induced ripening attributes. In response to external ethylene these antisense fruits undergo a normal climacteric burst and produced increasing concentrations of ester, polypropanoid, and terpene volatile compounds over an 8-d period. A total of 186 candidate genes that might be involved in the production of these compounds were mined from expressed sequence tags databases and full sequence obtained. Expression patterns of 179 of these were assessed using a 15,720 oligonucleotide apple microarray. Based on sequence similarity and gene expression patterns we identified 17 candidate genes that are likely to be ethylene control points for aroma production in apple. While many of the biosynthetic steps in these pathways were represented by gene families containing two or more genes, expression patterns revealed that only a single member is typically regulated by ethylene. Only certain points within the aroma biosynthesis pathways were regulated by ethylene. Often the first step, and in all pathways the last steps, contained enzymes that were ethylene regulated. This analysis suggests that the initial and final enzymatic steps with the biosynthetic pathways are important transcriptional regulation points for aroma production in apple.

280 citations