scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Learning Progressions as a Guide for Developing Meaningful Science Learning: A New Framework for Old Ideas

01 Oct 2013-Educación Química (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Química)-Vol. 24, Iss: 4, pp 381-390

AbstractThe development of learning progressions is one approach for creating the types of coher ent curriculum frameworks that have been identified as predictors for high-performing scores on international stem assessments. We have developed a learning progression that describes how secondary students may build more sophisticated understanding of the struc ture, properties, and behavior of matter, and that also outlines the connections and relation ships among ideas needed to develop more expert understanding. We used data collected from 82 individual interviews with secondary students and from assessments administered to 4000 Us middle school students to characterize how learners select and apply ideas to explain a range of transformation of matter phenomena. We found that most students relied on a limited set of ideas in their explanations, but that with the proper support, even middle school students were able to appropriately integrate ideas involving the structure of matter, conservation, interactions, and energy to provide mechanistic explanations of transforma tion phenomena.

Topics: Curriculum (50%) more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed sequence and emphasis on electronegativity and atomic orbital overlap meets the criteria for teaching and learning of concepts based on the psychology of learning including the theory of constructivism necessitating the construction of new knowledge using related prior knowledge.
Abstract: As an important subject in the curriculum, many students find chemistry concepts difficult to learn and understand. Chemical bonding especially is important in understanding the compositions of chemical compounds and related concepts and research has shown that students struggle with this concept. In this theoretical paper based on analysis of relevant science education research, textbooks, and our classroom observations and teaching experiences, the authors argue that the difficulty in learning chemical bonding concepts is associated with the sequence (ionic, covalent and polar covalent bonding) in which students are taught because this sequence receives little support from constructivist theories of learning. Consequently, the paper proposes a sequence to teach chemical bonding (covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonding) for effective and sustainable learning. In this sequence, the concepts are developed with minimum reorganisation of previously learned information, using a format which is claimed to be easy for students to learn. For teaching these concepts, the use of electronegativity and the overlap of atomic orbitals for all types of bonding have also been stressed. The proposed sequence and emphasis on electronegativity and atomic orbital overlap meets the criteria for teaching and learning of concepts based on the psychology of learning including the theory of constructivism necessitating the construction of new knowledge using related prior knowledge. It also provides a better linkage between the bonding concepts learned at secondary and tertiary levels. Considering these proposed advantages for teaching, this sequence is recommended for further research into effective and sustainable teaching.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: (Learning Progressions: Promise and Potential) The educational construct of Learning Progression (LP) is becoming central in research and curriculum development in science education in the US. Learning progressions are models that describe how students’ understanding of central concepts or ideas becomes more sophis­ticated over time. To date, only a few learning progressions have been developed and validated in critical science areas. In this issue of Educacion Quimica , leaders and pioneers in LP re­search and development across the world describe and discuss their efforts to expand and strengthen our understanding of learning progressions in chemistry. KEYWORDS: learning progressions, curricular models, chemistry teaching editorial 1 department of chemistryand biochemistry, university arizona, tuc-son, aZ 85721. correo electronico:* Educacion Quimica agradece a Vicente talanquer por su labor como coor-dinador de la seccion “Areas tematicas emergentes de la educacion quimi-ca [Progresiones de aprendizaje en Quimica]”, desde la definicionde gran parte de los participantes, su seguimiento a lo largo de meses de trabajo intenso, hasta la elaboracion de esta editorial.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the spirit of model revision, researchers continue to refine the notion of a learning progression. Despite many advances in learning progressions research, one key design element has eluded scholarly critique, the upper anchor. Drawing on science education research and studies of science, this essay argues for a shift from the predominant model of the upper anchor as the fixed, “most sophisticated” way of thinking toward a more expansive “upper reach” that acknowledges plurality and context-dependence in ways of knowing. Three possible models for context-dependent upper reaches are offered.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Learning Progressions(학습진행과정, 이하 LP)은 "과학의 핵심 아이디어(core idea) 혹은 과학 활동(scientific practices) 이해 과정을 상대적으로 단순한 체계에서 전문가의 지식체계로 논리적이고, 순차적인 단계로 정교하게 설명한 틀"로서, 한 교과 내 및 다른 과학영역들(물리, 지구과학, 생물, 화학)과 연결하여 연계적 교육과정을 구성하는 이론적 기반을 제공한다. 학습은 개개인의 선지식, 선경험, 교과교육과정, 교육과정 등의 여러 요소에 영향을 받는 복잡한 이해 과정으로, LP 단계를 모든 학생들이 동일하게 이동하지 않는다. 학생과 학습환경의 특성에 따른 이동 가능한 학습경로의 서술을 위해서는 다양한 학생데이터의 수집과 분석이 필요하다. 이러한 과정을 통해서 가설의 LP는 과학적으로 증명된 LP로 규명되며. 비로소 교과과정 개발의 틀(framework)로 역할을 할 수 있다. 본 연구는 미시간 대학 연구팀이 개발한 "물질의 본성(nature of matter)" 주요 개념에서, 하위개념인 "물질의 입자성(particule nature of matter)과 입자적 표상(submicroscophic representation)"의 LP와 관련 평가지를 우리나라 과학교육과정과 연계, 수정하여 개발하였다. 수정된 평가지와 LP는 124명의 중고등학생의 LP 경로 특성을 분석하는데 사용되었다. 학생들의 입자적 개념과 표상의 이해도, 개념과 표상 이해도 연관성을 중점으로 분석하여 관련 과학교육과정과 현장 수업의 문제점과 시사점을 도출하였다. 본 연구결과를 종합해 보면, 높은 레벨 문항의 정답을 고른 빈도수는 낮은 레벨 문항을 모두 정답으로 고른 경우에 높았으며 이는 학생들이 본 연구팀이 개발한 LP 경로로 이해과정을 정교화시킴을 알 수 있다. 하지만, 대부분의 학생들, 특히 고등학생들은 초등학교 수준의 거시적 물질의 본성 개념 LP 단계에 머물고 있으며, 중학교 수준인 미시적 표상 LP 단계에 있다. 입자적 개념과 표상 이해 실패의 주요 원인은 1) 과학적 모델의 본질, 2) 관련 선지식, 3) 미립자 표상의 이해부족으로 정리된다. 본 연구결과는 물질의 입자성과 관련된 개념, 과학활동(특히 모델링)을 증진시키고 개개인 특성에 맞는 맞춤형 학습환경 제공을 위한 학습, 교수, 평가자료 개발에 기여하는 바가 크다. 더 나아가 '물질의 본성'에 대한 LP연구와 과학적 소양 증진에 긍정적 역할을 할 것으로 기대한다. 【Learning progressions (LP), which describe how students may develop more sophisticated understanding over a defined period of time, can inform the design of instructional materials and assessment by providing a coherent, systematic measure of what can be regarded as "level appropriate." We developed LPs for the nature of matter for grades K-16. In order to empirically test Korean students, we revised one of the constructs and associated assessment items based on Korean National Science Standards. The assessment was administered to 124 Korean secondary students to measure their knowledge and submicroscopic representations, and to assign them to a level of learning progression for the particle nature of matter. We characterized the level of students' understanding and models of the particle nature of matter, and described how students interpret various representations of atoms and molecules to explain scientific phenomena. The results revealed that students have difficulties in understanding the relationship between the macroscopic and molecular levels of phenomena, even in high school science. Their difficulties may be attributed to a limited understanding of scientific modeling, a lack of understanding of the models used to represent the particle nature of matter, or limited understanding of the structure of matter. This work will inform assessment and curriculum materials development related to the fundamental relationship between macroscopic, observed phenomena and the behavior of atoms and molecules, and can be used to create individualized learning environments. In addition, the results contribute to scientific research literature on learning progressions on the nature of matter.】

7 citations

Additional excerpts

  • ...미시간 연구팀은 핵심 아이디어인 '물질의 본성' LP를 이론적, 실험적 증거에 근거하여 '물질과 물체', '힘과 상호작용', '분자운동', '보존', '에너지'라는 하위 주 요개념으로 나누었으며, 정의한 하위 개념들이 서로 연결되어 전문가 수준의 지식체계까지 구축되는 LP를 개발하였다(Stevens et al., 2013)....


01 Jan 2018
Abstract: ......................................................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ iv Table of

4 citations

More filters

01 Jan 1999
Abstract: New developments in the science of learning science of learning overview mind and brain how experts differ from novices how children learn learning and transfer the learning environment curriculum, instruction and commnity effective teaching - examples in history, mathematics and science teacher learning technology to support learning conclusions from new developments in the science of learning.

13,579 citations

01 Jan 1968

5,017 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from sorting tasks and protocols reveal that experts and novices begin their problem representations with specifiably different problem categories, and completion of the representations depends on the knowledge associated with the categories.
Abstract: The representation of physics problems in relation to the organization of physics knowledge is investigated in experts and novices. Four experiments examine (a) the existence of problem categories as a basis for representation; (b) differences in the categories used by experts and novices; (c) differences in the knowledge associated with the categories; and (d) features in the problems that contribute to problem categorization and representation. Results from sorting tasks and protocols reveal that experts and novices begin their problem representations with specifiably different problem categories, and completion of the representations depends on the knowledge associated with the categories. For, the experts initially abstract physics principles to approach and solve a problem representation, whereas novices base their representation and approaches on the problem's literal features.

4,923 citations

01 Jan 2007
Abstract: What is science for a child? How do children learn about science and how to do science? Drawing on a vast array of work from neuroscience to classroom observation, Taking Science to School provides a comprehensive picture of what we know about teaching and learning science from kindergarten through eighth grade. By looking at a broad range of questions, this book provides a basic foundation for guiding science teaching and supporting students in their learning. Taking Science to School answers such questions as: * When do children begin to learn about science? Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects? * What role does nonschool learning play in children's knowledge of science? * How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity? * What are the best tasks for books, lectures, and hands-on learning? * How can teachers be taught to teach science? The book also provides a detailed examination of how we know what we know about children's learning of science--about the role of research and evidence. This book will be an essential resource for everyone involved in K-8 science education--teachers, principals, boards of education, teacher education providers and accreditors, education researchers, federal education agencies, and state and federal policy makers. It will also be a useful guide for parents and others interested in how children learn.

1,922 citations