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Journal ArticleDOI

Learning when school is not in session: a reading summer day‐camp intervention to improve the achievement of exiting First‐Grade students who are economically disadvantaged

01 May 2005-Journal of Research in Reading (Blackwell Publishing)-Vol. 28, Iss: 2, pp 158-169
TL;DR: In this article, a longitudinal randomised trial, a randomly assigned group of exiting First-Grade children who were economically disadvantaged was enrolled in a seven-week summer reading day camp.
Abstract: During the summer vacation children who are economically disadvantaged experience declines in reading achievement, while middle- and high-income children improve. Previous research has demonstrated that the most widely implemented intervention – sending economically disadvantaged students to summer school – has not led to increases in reading achievement. In this longitudinal randomised trial, a randomly assigned group of exiting First-Grade children who were economically disadvantaged was enrolled in a seven-week summer reading day camp. The intervention students' reading achievement was then compared to control group participants at four time points. Results showed noteworthy differences for intervention students in reading comprehension.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good maintenance of effect that transferred to nontargeted skills, whereas phonics and fluency interventions, and those for preschool and kindergarten children, tended not to.
Abstract: Much is known about short-term--but very little about the long-term--effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good maintenance of effect that transferred to nontargeted skills, whereas phonics and fluency interventions, and those for preschool and kindergarten children, tended not to. Several methodological features also related to effect sizes at follow-up, namely experimental design and dosage, and sample attrition, risk status, and gender balance.

237 citations


Cites background from "Learning when school is not in sess..."

  • ...…et al. preschool 2004 PA Preschool teachers Pre Normal 0.72 40 0.50 37 6 Ryder et al. 2008 Fluency Trained intervener 1.5 At risk 1.77 24 0.84 20 18 Schachter & Jo 2005 Mixed Trained intervener 1.0 At risk 0.97 118 0.48 105 10 Segers & Verhoeven 2005 Phonics Computer K Normal 0.19 100 0.32 78…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a meta-analysis reviewed research on summer reading interventions conducted in the United States and Canada from 1998 to 2011 and found that children who participated in classroom interventions, involving teacher-directed literacy lessons, or home interventions, including child-initiated book reading activities, enjoyed significant improvement on multiple reading outcomes.
Abstract: This meta-analysis reviewed research on summer reading interventions conducted in the United States and Canada from 1998 to 2011. The synthesis included 41 classroom- and home-based summer reading interventions involving children from kindergarten to Grade 8. Compared to control group children, children who participated in classroom interventions, involving teacher-directed literacy lessons, or home interventions, involving child-initiated book reading activities, enjoyed significant improvement on multiple reading outcomes. The magnitude of the treatment effect was positive for summer reading interventions that employed research-based reading instruction and included a majority of low-income children. Sensitivity analyses based on within-study comparisons indicated that summer reading interventions had significantly larger benefits for children from low-income backgrounds than for children from a mix of income backgrounds. The findings highlight the potentially positive impact of classroom- and home-base...

159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, five categories of reading comprehension strategies (peer learning, self-questioning, story grammar and text structure, story mapping and graphic organizers, and vocabulary development) were identified and discussed.
Abstract: Although early reading instruction focuses on phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle, research indicates that reading comprehension strategies can be effectively taught to young students. Peer-reviewed studies that employed experimental or quasi-experimental designs and included children between the ages of five and nine, some of whom had disabilities or were determined to be at-risk for academic failure, were examined. Five categories of reading comprehension strategies (peer learning, self-questioning, story grammar and text structure, story mapping and graphic organizers, and vocabulary development) that have increased the reading comprehension abilities of young students were identified and discussed. Students appeared to be most successful when two or more strategies were combined. Instructional choices teachers might make in light of the current research are discussed.

50 citations


Cites background from "Learning when school is not in sess..."

  • ...Summer reading programs can help children retain gains made during the school year (Denton, Solari, Ciancio, Hecht, & Swank, 2010; Kim & Guryan, 2010; Schacter & Jo, 2005)....

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01 Jul 2014
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of rigorous research studies on increased learning time is presented, where the authors compare traditional instruction and experiential learning instruction and conclude that traditional instruction improved literacy and math achievement, while experientially learning instruction improved student social-emotional skills.
Abstract: This report summarizes a review of rigorous research studies on increased learning time. Findings across studies have been combined using meta-analysis techniques. • Increased learning time programs improved literacy and math achievement when instruction was led by certified teachers, though the effects were small. • Effects varied by type of instruction. Programs that used a traditional instruction style improved literacy and math achievement. Programs that used an experiential learning instruction style improved student social-emotional skills. In both cases the effects were small. • Increased learning time improved the literacy achievement of students performing below standards and the social-emotional skills of students with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The vast differences in summer learning activities among children present a substantial challenge to providing equal educational opportunity in the United States as discussed by the authors, and most initiatives aimed at reversing these differences are ineffective.
Abstract: The vast differences in summer learning activities among children present a substantial challenge to providing equal educational opportunity in the United States. Most initiatives aimed at reversin...

41 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the development of literacy in one elementary school with a large minority, low socioeconomic status population, followed as they progressed from first through fourth grade, finding that good readers read considerably more than the poor readers both in and out of school, which appeared to contribute to the good readers' growth in some reading and writing skills.
Abstract: My research focused on literacy development in children through fourth grade and followed an earlier study (Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1986). The Simple View of reading and writing received support in this earlier study and was examined in my current research. Of particular concern were these questions: Do the same children remain poor readers year after year? Do the same children remain poor writers year after year? What skills do the poor readers lack? What skills do the poor writers lack? What factors seem to keep poor readers from improving? What factors seem to keep poor writers from improving? The probability that a child would remain a poor reader at the end of fourth grade if the child was a poor reader at the end of first grade was .88. Early writing skill did not predict later writing skill as well as early reading ability predicted later reading ability. Children who became poor readers entered first grade with little phonemic awareness. By the end of fourth grade, the poor readers had still not achieved the level of decoding skill that the good readers had achieved at the beginning of second grade. Good readers read considerably more than the poor readers both in and out of school, which appeared to contribute to the good readers' growth in some reading and writing skills (e.g., in ideas for stories). Poor readers tended to become poor writers. The Simple View received support in accounting for reading and writing development through fourth grade. This study examined the development of literacy in one elementary school with a large minority, low socioeconomic status population. The reading and writing development of 54 children was followed as they progressed from first through fourth grade. This in-depth examination of literacy acquisition in a microcosm of at-risk children attempted to answer the following questions: Do the same children remain poor readers year after year? Do the same children remain poor writers year after year? What skills do the poor readers lack?

2,040 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of 39 studies indicated that achievement test scores decline over summer vacation as discussed by the authors, and the effect of summer break was more detrimental for math than for reading and most detrimental for computation and spelling.
Abstract: A review of 39 studies indicated that achievement test scores decline over summer vacation. The results of the 13 most recent studies were combined using meta-analytic procedures. The meta-analysis indicated that the summer loss equaled about one month on a grade-level equivalent scale, or one tenth of a standard deviation relative to spring test scores. The effect of summer break was more detrimental for math than for reading and most detrimental for math computation and spelling. Also, middle-class students appeared to gain on grade-level equivalent reading recognition tests over summer while lower-class students lost on them. There were no moderating effects for student gender or race, but the negative effect of summer did increase with increases in students’ grade levels. Suggested explanations for the findings include the differential availability of opportunities to practice different academic material over summer (with reading practice more available than math practice) and differences in the mater...

906 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) as discussed by the authors is a longitudinally merged database linking students and student outcomes to the schools and systems in which they are enrolled and to the teachers to whom they are assigned as they transition from grade to grade.
Abstract: The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. An integral part of TVAAS is a massive, longitudinally merged database linking students and student outcomes to the schools and systems in which they are enrolled and to the teachers to whom they are assigned as they transition from grade to grade. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress. Teacher effects on student achievement have been found to be both additive and cumulative with little evidence that subsequent effective teachers can offset the effects of ineffective ones. For these reasons, a component linking teacher effectiveness to student outcomes is a necessary part of any effective educational evaluation system.

744 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the seasonal differences in the seasonality of children's learning over the school year and summer months, and find that during the summer, upper SES children’s skills continue to advance (albeit at a slower rate than during the regular school year), but lower SES learners' gains, on average, are flat.
Abstract: Are there socioeconomic differences in the seasonality of children’s learning over the school year and summer months? The achievement gap across social lines increases during the primary grades, as much research indicates, but descriptive analyses and HLM within-person growth models for a representative panel of Baltimore school children demonstrate that the increase can be traced mainly to the out-of-school environment (i.e., influences situated in home and community). School-year verbal and quantitative achievement gains are comparable for upper socioeconomic status (SES) and lower SES children, but summer gains, when children are out of school, evidence large disparities. During the summer, upper SES children’s skills continue to advance (albeit at a slower rate than during the school year), but lower SES children’s gains, on average, are flat. This seasonal pattern of achievement gains implies that schooling plays an important compensatory role, one that is obscured when achievement is compared on an annual basis, as is typical. Policy implications of the seasonality of learning are discussed, including support for preventive measures over the preschool years and for programs, possibly including calendar reforms and summer school, to support disadvantaged children’s learning year-round.

596 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the results of a research project on the phenomenon of out-of-field teaching in American high schools, where teachers teach subjects for which they have little education or training.
Abstract: This article presents the results of a research project on the phenomenon of out-of-field teaching in American high schools–teachers teaching subjects for which they have little education or training. Over the past couple of years, the problem of out-of-field teaching has become a prominent topic in the realm of educational policy and reform, and the results of this research have been widely reported and commented on both by education policymakers and the national media. But unfortunately, out-of-field teaching is a problem that remains largely misunderstood. My research utilizes nationally representative data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The purpose of this article is to summarize what my research has revealed about out-of-field teaching: how much of it goes on; to what extent it varies across different subjects, across different kinds of schools, and across different kinds of classrooms; and finally, the reasons for its prevalence in Am...

580 citations