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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JEP.2021.113989

Licochalcone A inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of colon cancer cell by targeting programmed cell death-ligand 1 via the NF-κB and Ras/Raf/MEK pathways.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Elsevier)-Vol. 273, pp 113989-113989
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a traditional medicinal, has a history of thousands of years. It is widely used in clinic and has been listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Licochalcone A is a phenolic chalcone compound and a characteristic chalcone of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. It has many pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic activities. Aim of the study In this study, we explored the anti-tumor activity and potential mechanism of licochalcone A in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods In vitro, the mechanism of licochalcone A at inhibiting PD-L1 expression was investigated by molecular docking, western blotting, RT-PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays. The co-culture model of T cells and tumor cells was used to detect the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Colony formation, EdU labelling and apoptosis assays were used to detect changes in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. In vivo, anti-tumor activity of licochalcone A was assessed in a xenograft model of HCT116 cells. Results In the present study, we found that licochalcone A suppressed the expression of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which plays a key role in regulating the immune response. In addition, licochalcone A inhibited the expressions of p65 and Ras. Immunoprecipitation experiment showed that licochalcone A suppressed the expression of PD-L1 by blocking the interaction between p65 and Ras. In the co-culture model of T cells and tumor cells, licochalcone A pretreatment enhanced the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and restored the ability to kill tumor cells. In addition, we showed that licochalcone A inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis by targeting PD-L1. In vivo xenograft assay confirmed that licochalcone A inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts. Conclusion In general, these results reveal the previously unknown properties of licochalcone A and provide new insights into the anticancer mechanism of this compound.

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Topics: Licochalcone A (81%), Cytotoxic T cell (52%), Cell growth (51%) ... read more
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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JEP.2021.114370
Myong Hak Ri1, Juan Ma2, Xuejun Jin2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint is one of the most promising therapeutic targets for cancer immunotherapy, but several challenges remain in current anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Natural products, mainly derived from traditional medicine, could improve and expand anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy because of their advantages such as large diversity and multi-target effects. Aim of the study This review summarize natural products, raw extracts, and traditional medicines with pharmacological effects associated with the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, particularly PD-L1. Materials and methods Electronic literature databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, and online drugs and chemicals databases, including DrugBank, ZINC, PubChem, STITCH, and CTD, were searched without date limitation by February 2021. ‘Natural product or herb or herbal plant or traditional medicine’ and ‘PD-L1’ and ‘Cancer immunotherapy’ were used as the search keywords. Among 112 articles identified in database searching, 54 articles are full text articles, reporting in silico, in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials. 68 articles included are review articles and grey literature such as thesis and congress abstracts. Results Several natural products and traditional medicines have exhibited diverse and multi-functional effects including direct blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions, modulation of PD-L1 expression, and cooperation with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Conclusion Natural products and traditional medicines can facilitate the development of more effective and acceptable diverse strategies for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, but further exploration of natural products and pharmaceutical techniques is required.

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Topics: DrugBank (51%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PTR.7272
Zhuoyin Xue1, Yongjing Zhang1, Yingnan Zeng1, Shiling Hu1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Licochalcone A (Lico A) is a natural flavonoid belonging to the class of substituted chalcone that has various biological effects. Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that mediate hypersensitivity and pseudo-allergic reactions. MAS-related GPR family member X2 (MRGPRX2) on MCs has been recognized as the main receptor for pseudo-allergic reactions. In this study, we investigated the anti-pseudo-allergy effect of Lico A and its underlying mechanism. Substance P (SP), as an MC activator, was used to establish an in vitro and in vivo model of pseudo-allergy. The in vivo effect of Lico A was investigated using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and active systemic allergy, along with degranulation, Ca2+ influx in vitro. SP-induced laboratory of allergic disease 2 (LAD2) cell mRNA expression was explored using RNA-seq, and Lico A inhibited LAD2 cell activation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Lico A showed an inhibitory effect on SP-induced MC activation and pseudo-allergy both in vitro and in vivo. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway is involved in MRGPRX2 induced MC activation, which is inhibited by Lico A. In conclusion, Lico A inhibited the pseudo-allergic reaction mediated by MRGPRX2 by blocking NF-κB nuclear migration.

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Topics: Licochalcone A (55%), Cell activation (54%), Degranulation (50%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RECHEM.2021.100216
Ankit Mittal1, Rita Kakkar1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: In the search for novel drugs for health preservation, the active ingredients of medicinal herbs have been used since time immemorial. Liquorice, a potent medicinal herb derived from the root and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used worldwide for the treatment of various diseases. A number of compounds have been isolated from the liquorice root, including retrochalcones, viz. echinatin, licochalcone A, B, C, D and E, having a diverse range of pharmacological applications such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-parasitic, to name a few. This review highlights the different synthetic procedures for retrochalcones and their in vitro, in vivo, ex vivo and in silico studies, along with the underlying molecular mechanisms. In addition, the total syntheses of licochalcone F and H, the regioisomers of licochalcone E and C, respectively, have also been included. Herein, the maximum possible biological applications of retrochalcones cited so far in the literature have been reviewed. The insights from this review will further advance the role and application of retrochalcones in the field of medicinal chemistry.

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Topics: Licochalcone A (63%), Glycyrrhiza (56%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS221910847
Hong T. L. Phan1, Hyun Ji Kim1, Sungwoo Jo2, Woo K. Kim1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Calcium signaling plays a vital role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation of T-lymphocytes, which is mediated by ORAI1 and potassium (K+) channels. These channels have also been identified as highly attractive therapeutic targets for immune-related diseases. Licochalcone A is a licorice-derived chalconoid known for its multifaceted beneficial effects in pharmacological treatments, including its anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumorigenic properties. However, its anti-inflammatory effects involving ion channels in lymphocytes remain unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether licochalcone A inhibits ORAI1 and K+ channels in T-lymphocytes. Our results indicated that licochalcone A suppressed all three channels (ORAI1, Kv1.3, and KCa3.1) in a concentration-dependent matter, with IC50 values of 2.97 ± 1.217 µM, 0.83 ± 1.222 µM, and 11.21 ± 1.07 µM, respectively. Of note, licochalcone A exerted its suppressive effects on the IL-2 secretion and proliferation in CD3 and CD28 antibody-induced T-cells. These results indicate that the use of licochalcone A may provide an effective treatment strategy for inflammation-related immune diseases.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SEMCANCER.2021.11.006
Abstract: Normal cells express surface proteins that bind to immune checkpoint proteins on immune cells to turn them off, whereby the immune system does not attack normal healthy cells. Cancer cells can also utilize this same protective mechanism by expressing surface proteins associated with checkpoint proteins on immune cells to overcome the immune surveillance. Immunotherapy is making the best use of the body's own immune system to reinforce anti-tumor responses. The most generally used immunotherapy is the control of immune checkpoints including the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), or programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). In spite of the clinical effectiveness of these immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate still remains low. Therefore, there have been considerable efforts in searching for alternative immune checkpoint proteins that may work as new therapeutic targets for treatment of cancer. Recent studies have identified several additional novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3, T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif domain, V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation, B7 homolog 3 protein, B and T cell lymphocyte attenuator, and Inducible T-cell COStimulator. Natural compounds, especially those present in medicinal or dietary plants, have been investigated for their anti-tumor effects in various in vitro and in vivo models. Some phytochemicals exert anti-tumor activities based on immunoregulation, capable of blocking interaction between proteins involved in immune checkpoint signal transduction or regulation of their expression. Recently, synergistic anti-cancer effects of diverse phytochemicals with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody drugs have been continuously reported. Considering an increasing attention to noteworthy therapeutic effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the cancer therapy, this review focuses on regulatory effects of selected phytochemicals on immune checkpoint protein network and their combinational effectiveness with immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting tumor cells.

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Topics: Immune checkpoint (77%), CTLA-4 (68%), T cell (60%) ... read more
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46 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21442
Abstract: Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2014, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2015, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2018, 1,735,350 new cancer cases and 609,640 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2005-2014) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2006-2015) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. The combined cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2015 by a total of 26%, translating to approximately 2,378,600 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Of the 10 leading causes of death, only cancer declined from 2014 to 2015. In 2015, the cancer death rate was 14% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) overall (death rate ratio [DRR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.15), but the racial disparity was much larger for individuals aged <65 years (DRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.32) compared with those aged ≥65 years (DRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.09) and varied substantially by state. For example, the cancer death rate was lower in NHBs than NHWs in Massachusetts for all ages and in New York for individuals aged ≥65 years, whereas for those aged <65 years, it was 3 times higher in NHBs in the District of Columbia (DRR, 2.89; 95% CI, 2.16-3.91) and about 50% higher in Wisconsin (DRR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02), Kansas (DRR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.81), Louisiana (DRR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), Illinois (DRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.39-1.57), and California (DRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54). Larger racial inequalities in young and middle-aged adults probably partly reflect less access to high-quality health care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:7-30. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

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Topics: Cancer Death Rate (63%), Mortality rate (56%)

11,946 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.IMMUNOL.16.1.225
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The transcription factor NF-κB, more than a decade after its discovery, remains an exciting and active area of study. The involvement of NF-κB in the expression of numerous cytokines and adhesion molecules has supported its role as an evolutionarily conserved coordinating element in the organism's response to situations of infection, stress, and injury. Recently, significant advances have been made in elucidating the details of the pathways through which signals are transmitted to the NF-κB:IκB complex in the cytosol. The field now awaits the discovery and characterization of the kinase responsible for the inducible phosphorylation of IκB proteins. Another exciting development has been the demonstration that in certain situations NF-κB acts as an anti-apoptotic protein; therefore, elucidation of the mechanism by which NF-κB protects against cell death is an important goal. Finally, the generation of knockouts of members of the NF-κB/IκB family has allowed the study of the roles of these protein...

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Topics: IκB kinase (60%), CHUK (55%), Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel (54%) ... read more

5,174 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21395
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the United States. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society provides an update of CRC incidence, survival, and mortality rates and trends. Incidence data through 2013 were provided by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the National Program of Cancer Registries, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data through 2014 were provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. CRC incidence rates are highest in Alaska Natives and blacks and lowest in Asian/Pacific Islanders, and they are 30% to 40% higher in men than in women. Recent temporal patterns are generally similar by race and sex, but differ by age. Between 2000 and 2013, incidence rates in adults aged ≥50 years declined by 32%, with the drop largest for distal tumors in people aged ≥65 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.48-0.52) and smallest for rectal tumors in ages 50 to 64 years (male IRR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96; female IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.08). Overall CRC incidence in individuals ages ≥50 years declined from 2009 to 2013 in every state except Arkansas, with the decrease exceeding 5% annually in 7 states; however, rectal tumor incidence in those ages 50 to 64 years was stable in most states. Among adults aged <50 years, CRC incidence rates increased by 22% from 2000 to 2013, driven solely by tumors in the distal colon (IRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35) and rectum (IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31). Similar to incidence patterns, CRC death rates decreased by 34% among individuals aged ≥50 years during 2000 through 2014, but increased by 13% in those aged <50 years. Progress against CRC can be accelerated by increasing initiation of screening at age 50 years (average risk) or earlier (eg, family history of CRC/advanced adenomas) and eliminating disparities in high-quality treatment. In addition, research is needed to elucidate causes for increasing CRC in young adults. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:177-193. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

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Topics: Rate ratio (56%), Mortality rate (53%), Incidence (epidemiology) (53%) ... read more

2,689 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.192461099
Abstract: PD-1 is a receptor of the Ig superfamily that negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by interacting with the specific ligands (PD-L) and is suggested to play a role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In the present study, we examined possible roles of the PD-1/PD-L system in tumor immunity. Transgenic expression of PD-L1, one of the PD-L, in P815 tumor cells rendered them less susceptible to the specific T cell antigen receptor-mediated lysis by cytotoxic T cells in vitro, and markedly enhanced their tumorigenesis and invasiveness in vivo in the syngeneic hosts as compared with the parental tumor cells that lacked endogenous PD-L. Both effects could be reversed by anti-PD-L1 Ab. Survey of murine tumor lines revealed that all of the myeloma cell lines examined naturally expressed PD-L1. Growth of the myeloma cells in normal syngeneic mice was inhibited significantly albeit transiently by the administration of anti-PD-L1 Ab in vivo and was suppressed completely in the syngeneic PD-1-deficient mice. These results suggest that the expression of PD-L1 can serve as a potent mechanism for potentially immunogenic tumors to escape from host immune responses and that blockade of interaction between PD-1 and PD-L may provide a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.

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Topics: B7-H1 Antigen (62%), Cytotoxic T cell (61%), Antigen (59%) ... read more

2,230 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SJ.ONC.1209954
Thomas D. Gilmore1Institutions (1)
30 Oct 2006-Oncogene
Abstract: This article serves as an introduction to the collection of reviews on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). It provides an overview of the discovery and current status of NF-kappaB as a research topic. Described are the structures, activities and regulation of the proteins in the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors. NF-kappaB signaling is primarily regulated by inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) proteins and the IkappaB kinase complex through two major pathways: the canonical and non-canonical NF-kappaB pathways. The organization and focus of articles included in the following reviews are described, as well as likely future areas of research interest on NF-kappaB.

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1,894 Citations