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Journal ArticleDOI

Life Satisfaction and Happiness Among the Roma in Central and Southeastern Europe

22 Oct 2015-Social Indicators Research (Springer Netherlands)-Vol. 124, Iss: 1, pp 199-220
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined general life satisfaction and happiness as two indicators of subjective well-being among Roma and non-Roma populations in Central and Southeastern Europe, and found that the happiness and health status of the Roma is lower than that of nonRoma.
Abstract: This study examines general life satisfaction and happiness as two indicators of subjective well-being among Roma and non-Roma populations in Central and Southeastern Europe. Using a sample of 11,997 participants (Roma N = 8,399, non-Roma N = 3,598) from the Regional Roma Survey in 2011 we test a structural equation model which considers self-rated health, income, education, quality of housing, perceived (ethnic) discrimination, and ethnic group identification as mediators of the relationship between Roma/non-Roma group membership and subjective well-being. Well-being was found to be lower among Roma compared to non-Roma and this was fully due to Roma’s lower health status, lower income, lower education, lower quality of housing, lower ethnic identification, and higher perceived discrimination. The findings confirm that Roma have fewer resources for the attainment of need-gratification which negatively affects their happiness and life satisfaction, thereby, refuting the romanticized image of the Roma as ‘poor but happy people’.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors consolidate the existing body of knowledge by consolidating the findings of the literature; grouping those into major themes and sub-themes; describing the mechanisms based on the empirical papers by highlighting the independent, dependent, control, and moderating variables, to study the causal relationships between variables under study; proposing an agenda for future research; and informing the policymakers about decisions influencing the human happiness level through legislative rules and regulations.
Abstract: Human beings want to live in a state of happiness and prosperity, but happiness is important not just for the well-being of individuals but for the well-being of society. To ensure the maximization of happiness, it is necessary to consider more than just money, and rather include the right understanding of happiness at the individual level, the family level, the society level, and the environmental (nature) level. This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge by consolidating the findings of the literature; grouping those into major themes and sub-themes; describing the mechanisms based on the empirical papers by highlighting the independent, dependent, control, and moderating variables, to study the causal relationships between variables under study; proposing an agenda for future research; and informing the policymakers about decisions influencing the human happiness level through legislative rules and regulations. Our results suggest prioritizing the conceptualization of happiness while computing the happiness level at the individual or collective levels. Furthermore, the study recommends governments to establish the conditions enabling individuals to report happiness independently from the political pressure to answer strategically for impressive happiness level figures at the macro level.

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that immigrants are likely to be more satisfied in countries that offer more welcoming social settings, however, this association is significant only when the social setting is measured by attitudes of the native-born towards immigrants, rather than by legal immigration regulations and policies.
Abstract: Based on the data from six waves of the European Social Survey collected from 18 European countries between 2002 and 2012, we aimed at explaining the variation in immigrants’ life satisfaction across countries, by focusing on host countries’ characteristics. By adopting the multi-level analysis, we examined the national-level traits from three aspects: namely, the climate of immigrant reception, the extent of public goods provision and the level of economic inequality. Our findings suggest that immigrants are likely to be more satisfied in countries that offer more welcoming social settings. However, this association is significant only when the social setting is measured by attitudes of the native-born towards immigrants, rather than by legal immigration regulations and policies. When taking into account the extent to which host country is able to provide public goods, country’s wealth levels seems not to matter for immigrants’ life satisfaction, whereas countries’ levels of human development is associated with an increase in immigrants’ life satisfaction albeit only at the 10% significance level. The role of economic inequality varies with immigrants’ own socio-economic statuses. On average, immigrants are less satisfied with their lives in host countries with higher levels of economic inequality. However, highly educated immigrants tend not to perceive economic inequality of the country as an obstacle of their satisfaction.

49 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that both ethnic and host national identification are "healthy" and thus predominantly conducive to greater hedonic and eudaimonic well-being of immigrants living in two cultural contexts.
Abstract: Rejection-identification and rejection-disidentification models propose that low-status groups identify with their in-group and disidentify with a high-status out-group in response to rejection by the latter Our research tests these two models simultaneously among multiple groups of foreign-born people living in two cultural contexts We examined these effects on representative samples of 2446 refugees in the Netherlands (Study 1) and 1234 voluntary immigrants in Spain (Study 2) We found that both ethnic and host national identification are ‘healthy’ and thus predominantly conducive to greater hedonic and eudaimonic well-being Further, perceived discrimination was associated with host national disidentification among refugees in the Netherlands and voluntary immigrants in Spain However, our findings regarding the rejection-identification link were less consistent We discuss the importance of ethnic and host national identification for the well-being of immigrants

43 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the views and practices of segregated Roma living in separated communities, and then of health system professionals in Slovakia regarding the poor health status of separated Roma in the country, and contribute to the understanding of the health inequalities between segregated Roma and the general populations in Central and Eastern Europe.
Abstract: This thesis assesses the views and practices first of segregated Roma, i.e. Roma living in separated communities, and then of health system professionals in Slovakia regarding the poor health status of segregated Roma in the country. It aims to contribute to the understanding of the health inequalities between segregated Roma and the general populations in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Based on four ethnographic studies, the thesis offers novel insights regarding three kinds of pathways. First, it adds that some CEE segregated Roma develop themselves ethnically framed racialized ideologies against the culture of local “non-Roma” standards of life, including care. Such social norms then shape health-endangering exposures of these Roma within the segregated enclaves in various ways, which vary by the household’s social level. Second, the thesis adds that frequently provided substandard healthcare to segregated Roma can be sustained by a poor understanding of their conditions and practices, and not-aligned organizational features. This can in turn lead to the Roma using healthcare services less effectively and to further exacerbation of specific health problems in this group. Lastly, the thesis adds that both pathways can be driven by an omnipresence of a specific form of racism targeting Roma: antigypsyism. In sum, the thesis suggests that to better understand and tackle inequalities concerning Roma, more focus is needed on the specific exposure pathways that we identified and on the fundamental underlying role of racism. Simultaneously, it shows that use of ethnographic tools within such research can be productive.

17 citations


Cites background or result from "Life Satisfaction and Happiness Amo..."

  • ...…for CEE segregated Roma, although some regional differences may exist (Bobakova et al. 2015; Bobakova et al. 2012; Čvorović et al. 2018; Davidova et al. 2010; Dimitrova et al. 2014; Dimitrova et al. 2018; Dimitrova et al. 2017; Kamberi et al. 2015; Kolarcik et al. 2010; Kolarcik et al. 2012)....

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  • ...However, scientific studies mostly do not document the whole region, as most are only focused on single countries (e.g. Andreassen et al. 2018; Cook et al. 2013; Dimitrova et al. 2013; Dimitrova et al. 2018; Janevic et al. 2017; Kamberi et al. 2015; Kósa et al. 2015; Nikolic et al. 2015; Sedlecky et al. 2015; Walfisch et al. 2013; Zeljko et al. 2013)....

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  • ...…whole region, as most are only focused on single countries (e.g. Andreassen et al. 2018; Cook et al. 2013; Dimitrova et al. 2013; Dimitrova et al. 2018; Janevic et al. 2017; Kamberi et al. 2015; Kósa et al. 2015; Nikolic et al. 2015; Sedlecky et al. 2015; Walfisch et al. 2013; Zeljko et al. 2013)....

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  • ...First, findings on exposures to adverse psychosocial circumstances are rather varied (Bobakova et al. 2012; Dimitrova et al. 2013; Dimitrova et al. 2014; Dimitrova et al. 2018; Dimitrova et al. 2017; Kamberi et al. 2015; Kolarcik et al. 2010; Kolarcik et al. 2012; Kolarcik et al. 2015)....

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  • ...However, our findings are congruent with previous findings of both significant psychosocial pressures and specific coping strategies regarding standard stressors for CEE segregated Roma, although some regional differences may exist (Bobakova et al. 2015; Bobakova et al. 2012; Čvorović et al. 2018; Davidova et al. 2010; Dimitrova et al. 2014; Dimitrova et al. 2018; Dimitrova et al. 2017; Kamberi et al. 2015; Kolarcik et al. 2010; Kolarcik et al. 2012)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jul 2017
TL;DR: Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being, and Roma youth had similar levels ofWell-being to the general population.
Abstract: Background. Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being. Methods. Nationally representative household surveys, including large Roma population samples, were conducted as part of UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme. Young people aged 15–24 years (N = 11 944) indicated their satisfaction with life, happiness and expectations about the future. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to determine the impact of individual-level predictors while accounting for country- and cluster-level variability. Results. Around 40% of young people considered themselves very happy or very satisfied with their life overall. Three quarters reported optimism. Yet well-being varied greatly between countries, with youth in BiH and Ukraine reporting lowest levels of well-being. Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being. Conclusions. Patterns of well-being in youth vary substantially between countries and are only partly accounted for by standard demographic characteristics. Despite higher rates of adolescent marriage and childbearing, and lower levels of educational attainment and employment, Roma youth had similar levels of well-being to the general population.

12 citations

References
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Posted Content
TL;DR: The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory.
Abstract: The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.

10,021 citations


"Life Satisfaction and Happiness Amo..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The items are valid and reliable brief measures of global subjective well-being (Andrews and Withey 1976; Diener 2009)....

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  • ...2 Income One of the more prominent explanations of SWB is the access to economic resources (Diener 2009; Triandis 2000)....

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  • ...In addition, health is found to be both a cause and an effect of SWB (Diener 2009)....

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  • ...Previous research, for example, shows that health is both a cause and a consequence of SWB (Diener 2009), but also that happy people tend to have better job performance and higher economic prosperity (Diener 2009)....

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  • ...A similar item with a similar response scale was used, for example, in a study by Diener et al. (1993). In the new measure, 19....

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Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in this article in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory.
Abstract: The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.

7,799 citations

Book
01 Jan 1979

6,787 citations


"Life Satisfaction and Happiness Amo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Pride is a defining characteristic of group identification (Rosenberg 1979) and one-item measures for group identification have been shown to be reliable and valid (Postmes et al....

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BookDOI
01 Jan 1976

3,078 citations