Light-based theranostics using hybrid structures derived from biological and organic materials
27 Sep 2016-Proceedings of SPIE (International Society for Optics and Photonics)-Vol. 9930, pp 993008
TL;DR: Preliminary results that demonstrate the effectiveness of NIR erythrocyte-mimicking transducers for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapeutic destruction of breast cancer cells, upon photo-excitation using NIR light are presented.
Abstract: We have engineered hybrid nanostructures derived from erythrocytes, which can be doped with various near infrared (NIR) organic chromophores, including the FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these vesicles as NIR erythrocyte-mimicking transducers (NETs), as they are capable of generating heat, reactive oxygen species (ROS) or emit fluorescence light. We present preliminary results that demonstrate the effectiveness of NETs for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapeutic destruction of breast cancer cells, upon photo-excitation using NIR light. These hybrid nanostructures present a promising platform with theranostic capability for future biomedical clinical applications.
TL;DR: Carrier erythrocytes have emerged as a potential alternative to other traditional delivery systems and, although promising, are not yet fully developed and there are still challenges to overcome in their production and complete characterization.
Abstract: In recent decades, carrier erythrocytes have emerged as a potential alternative to other traditional delivery systems. Research in this field has recently expanded, developing erythrocyte-related systems with interesting improvements to their properties. A wide range of different structures have been studied, from simple modifications in engineered erythrocyte ghosts to vesicles obtained from them by means of different methods, the so-called nanoerythrosomes. Combinations of these systems with other traditional delivery systems such as liposomes and nanoparticles have also been studied. Furthermore, synthetic structures trying to mimic erythrocyte properties have been obtained with the aim of reaching the unique biocompatibility of these innate biological systems. Applications of these new systems cover a wide variety of fields as carriers of different types of molecules, from drugs to contrast agents, that can be used in theranostics. Molecules included in these systems can also be stimuli-responsive which presents new and wider opportunities in the vectorization of active molecules such as antineoplastic drugs or contrast agents to specific target organs or tissues. Nevertheless, these systems are currently in an early stage of development and, although promising, are not yet fully developed and there are still challenges to overcome in their production and complete characterization.
TL;DR: PDT is being tested in the clinic for use in oncology — to treat cancers of the head and neck, brain, lung, pancreas, intraperitoneal cavity, breast, prostate and skin.
Abstract: The therapeutic properties of light have been known for thousands of years, but it was only in the last century that photodynamic therapy (PDT) was developed. At present, PDT is being tested in the clinic for use in oncology--to treat cancers of the head and neck, brain, lung, pancreas, intraperitoneal cavity, breast, prostate and skin. How does PDT work, and how can it be used to treat cancer and other diseases?
TL;DR: Enhanced fluorescence from carbon nanotubes and advances in near-infrared cameras have opened up a new wavelength window for small animal imaging as discussed by the authors, which has been used for animal detection.
Abstract: Enhanced fluorescence from carbon nanotubes and advances in near-infrared cameras have opened up a new wavelength window for small animal imaging.
TL;DR: The creative approaches being developed for these classes of therapies and imaging modalities are discussed, and the recent developments along with examples of technologies that hold promise for the future of cancer medicine are highlighted.
Abstract: Employing theranostic nanoparticles, which combine both therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities in one dose, has promise to propel the biomedical field toward personalized medicine. This review presents an overview of different theranostic strategies developed for the diagnosis and treatment of disease, with an emphasis on cancer. Herein, therapeutic strategies such as nucleic acid delivery, chemotherapy, hyperthermia (photothermal ablation), photodynamic, and radiation therapy are combined with one or more imaging functionalities for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Different imaging probes, such as MRI contrast agents (T1 and T2 agents), fluorescent markers (organic dyes and inorganic quantum dots), and nuclear imaging agents (PET/SPECT agents), can be decorated onto therapeutic agents or therapeutic delivery vehicles in order to facilitate their imaging and, in so doing, gain information about the trafficking pathway, kinetics of delivery, and therapeutic efficacy; several such strategies are outline...
TL;DR: Of particular interest is the observation that, after near-infrared exposure of spheroids containing nanoshell-loaded macrophages, sufficient heat was generated to suppress spheroid growth.
Abstract: Site-specific delivery of nanoparticles poses a significant challenge, especially in the brain where the blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of most therapeutic compounds including nanoparticle-based anti-cancer agents. In this context, the use of macrophages as vectors for the delivery of gold-silica nanoshells to infiltrating gliomas will be reviewed in this article. Gold-silica nanoshells are readily phagocytosed by macrophages without any apparent toxic effects, and the results of in vitro studies have demonstrated the migratory potential of nanoshell-loaded macrophages in human glioma spheroids. Of particular interest is the observation that, after near-infrared exposure of spheroids containing nanoshell-loaded macrophages, sufficient heat was generated to suppress spheroid growth. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of macrophages as nanoshell delivery vectors for photothermal therapy of gliomas, and they certainly provide the basis for future animal studies.