Linear stability analysis of miscible two-fluid flow in a channel with velocity slip at the walls
24 Jan 2014-Physics of Fluids (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 26, Iss: 1, pp 014107
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven two-fluid flow with same density and varying viscosities in a channel with velocity slip at the wall and showed that the flow system can be either stabilized or destabilized by designing the walls of the channel as hydrophobic surfaces.
Abstract: The linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven miscible two-fluid flow with same density and varying viscosities in a channel with velocity slip at the wall are examined. A prominent feature of the instability is that only a band of wave numbers is unstable whatever the Reynolds number is, whereas shorter wavelengths and smaller wave numbers are observed to be stable. The stability characteristics are different from both the limiting cases of interface dominated flows and continuously stratified flows in a channel with velocity slip at the wall. The flow system is destabilizing when a more viscous fluid occupies the region closer to the wall with slip. For this configuration a new mode of instability, namely the overlap mode, appears for high mass diffusivity of the two fluids. This mode arises due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant instability with the mixed layer of varying viscosity. The critical layer contains a location in the flow domain at which the base flow velocity equals the phase speed of the most unstable disturbance. Such a mode also occurs in the corresponding flow in a rigid channel, but absent in either of the above limiting cases of flow in a channel with slip. The flow is unstable at low Reynolds numbers for a wide range of wave numbers for low mass diffusivity, mimicking the interfacial instability of the immiscible flows. A configuration with less viscous fluid adjacent to the wall is more stable at moderate miscibility and this is also in contrast with the result for the limiting case of interface dominated flows in a channel with slip, where the above configuration is more unstable. It is possible to achieve stabilization or destabilization of miscible two-fluid flow in a channel with wall slip by appropriately choosing the viscosity of the fluid layer adjacent to the wall. In addition, the velocity slip at the wall has a dual role in the stability of flow system and the trend is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. It is well known that creating a viscosity contrast in a particular way in a rigid channel delays the occurrence of turbulence in a rigid channel. The results of the present study show that the flow system can be either stabilized or destabilized by designing the walls of the channel as hydrophobic surfaces, modeled by velocity slip at the walls. The study provides another effective strategy to control the flow system.
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of various fluid and geometric parameters on the physiological parameters such as resistance to flow and shear stress at the wall were analyzed with the assumption of mild stenosis.
Abstract: In this paper, we considered the pulsatile flow of blood through catheterized tapered artery in the presence of an ω -shaped stenosis. Blood flow is modelled as homogeneous incompressible couple stress fluid. Further the effects of velocity slip at the arterial wall are also examined. The analysis is carried out analytically and closed form solutions are obtained with the assumption of mild stenosis. In the present study, we analyze the effects of various fluid and geometric parameters on the physiological parameters such as resistance to flow and shear stress at the wall. The variation in the resistance to the flow and wall shear stress with respect to stenosis size ( ∊ , ψ ), radius of the catheter ( R c ), couple stress fluid parameters ( β , ω ), Reynolds number ( Re ) and pulsatile parameter ( σ ) has been studied. In particular shear stress at the wall is reckoned at both the locations corresponding to the maximum height of the stenosis. It has been observed that this physiological parameter is independent of the location of the maximum height in case of nontapered artery while these locations significantly impact the shear stress at the wall in case of tapered artery. The locations of the critical and maximum heights with corresponding annular radii are summarized in the form of Table 1 . We also focussed our attention on the analysis of the wall shear stress over the entire stenosis region for various values of the geometric and fluid parameters. It is observed that the impedance and wall shear stress are increasing with increase in the radius of catheter and stenosis size while they are decreasing as the tapered parameter and the couple stress fluid parameters are increasing. It is observed that slip velocity and diverging tapered artery facilitate the fluid flow.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of velocity slip at the walls on the linear stability characteristics of two-fluid three-layer channel flow was investigated in the presence of double diffusive (DD) phenomenon.
Abstract: The effect of velocity slip at the walls on the linear stability characteristics of two-fluid three-layer channel flow (the equivalent core-annular configuration in case of pipe) is investigated in the presence of double diffusive (DD) phenomenon. The fluids are miscible and consist of two solute species having different rates of diffusion. The fluids are assumed to be of the same density, but varying viscosity, which depends on the concentration of the solute species. It is found that the flow stabilizes when the less viscous fluid is present in the region adjacent to the slippery channel walls in the single-component (SC) system but becomes unstable at low Reynolds numbers in the presence of DD effect. As the mixed region of the fluids moves towards the channel walls, a new unstable mode (DD mode), distinct from the Tollman Schlichting (TS) mode, arises at Reynolds numbers smaller than the critical Reynolds number for the TS mode. We also found that this mode becomes more prominent when the mixed layer overlaps with the critical layer. It is shown that the slip parameter has nonmonotonic effect on the stability characteristics in this system. Through energy budget analysis, the dual role of slip is explained. The effect of slip is influenced by the location of mixed layer, the log-mobility ratio of the faster diffusing scalar, diffusivity, and the ratio of diffusion coefficients of the two species. Increasing the value of the slip parameter delays the first occurrence of the DD-mode. It is possible to achieve stabilization or destabilization by controlling the various physical parameters in the flow system. In the present study, we suggest an effective and realistic way to control three-layer miscible channel flow with viscosity stratification.
TL;DR: In this paper, the linear stability of viscosity-stratified core-annular Poiseuille flow with slip at the wall was investigated in the presence of two scalars diffusing at different rates.
Abstract: This study is motivated by the preliminary direct numerical simulations in double-diffusive (DD) core-annular flows with slip at the wall which displayed elliptical shaped instability patterns as in a rigid pipe case; however, slip at the pipe wall delays the onset of instability for a range of parameters and increases the phase speed. This increased our curiosity to have a thorough understanding of the linear stability characteristics of the miscible DD two-fluid flow in a pipe with slip at the pipe wall. The present study, therefore, addresses the linear stability of viscosity-stratified core-annular Poiseuille flow of miscible fluids with matched density in a slippery pipe in the presence of two scalars diffusing at different rates. The physical mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of instabilities in the DD system are explained through an energy budget analysis. The differences and similarities between core-annular flow in a slippery pipe and in a plane channel with velocity slip at the walls are explored. The stability characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of slip. The diffusivity effect is non-monotonic in a DD system. A striking feature of instability is that only a band of wavenumbers is destabilized in the presence of moderate to large inertial effects. Both the longwave and shortwave are stabilized at small Reynolds numbers. Slip exhibits a dual role of stabilizing or destabilizing the flow. The preliminary direct numerical simulations confirm the predictions of the linear stability analysis. The present study reveals that it may be possible to control the instabilities in core-annular pressure driven pipe flows by imposing a velocity slip at the walls.
TL;DR: In this article, the linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven core-annular flow of a Newtonian core fluid and a Herschel-Bulkley annular fluid are investigated.
Abstract: The linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven core-annular flow of a Newtonian core fluid and a Herschel–Bulkley annular fluid is investigated. The fluids are assumed to have the same density and separated by a sharp interface. The modified Orr–Sommerfeld equations for each layer are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method considering a configuration without any unyielded region. The effect of various dimensionless parameters, such as the Bingham number (Bn), the flow index (n), the interface radius (R0) and the inverse capillary number (Γ) on the instability characteristics of the flow is investigated, and an energy budget analysis is conducted to explain the physical mechanism of the instability observed. We found that axisymmetric mode is the most dominant unstable mode for the interfacial flow configuration considered in the present work, which is in contrast to miscible core-annular flows. It is observed that increasing Bn has a non-monotonic effect on the growth rate of the axisymmetric mode, and two dominant modes appear at high Bn. We found that increasing the thickness of the core fluid increases the bandwidth of the unstable wavenumbers and destabilises the short waves; however, displays a non-monotonic trend in the growth rate curves. The instability behaviour observed for different sets of parameters are investigated by conducting an energy budget analysis and analysing the disturbance eigenfunctions and the basic velocity profiles.
TL;DR: Lauga et al. as mentioned in this paper studied the stability of channel flow with streamwise and spanwise slip separately as two limiting cases of anisotropic slip and explore a broader range of slip length than previous studies did.
Abstract: In this work, we revisit the temporal stability of slip channel flow. Lauga & Cossu (Phys. Fluids 17, 088106 (2005)) and Min & Kim (Phys. Fluids 17, 108106 (2005)) have investigated both modal stability and non-normality of slip channel flow and concluded that the velocity slip greatly suppresses linear instability and only modestly affects the non-normality. Here we study the stability of channel flow with streamwise and spanwise slip separately as two limiting cases of anisotropic slip and explore a broader range of slip length than previous studies did. We find that, with sufficiently large slip, both streamwise and spanwise slip trigger three-dimensional leading instabilities. Overall, the critical Reynolds number is only slightly increased by streamwise slip, whereas it can be greatly decreased by spanwise slip. Streamwise slip suppresses the non-modal transient growth, whereas spanwise slip enlarges the non-modal growth although it does not affect the base flow. Interestingly, as the spanwise slip length increases, the optimal perturbations exhibit flow structures different from the well-known streamwise rolls. However, in the presence of equal slip in both directions, the three-dimensional leading instabilities disappear and the flow is greatly stabilized. The results suggest that earlier instability and larger transient growth can be triggered by introducing anisotropy in the velocity slip.
16 Jun 1994
TL;DR: The direct simulation Monte Carlo (or DSMC) method has, in recent years, become widely used in engineering and scientific studies of gas flows that involve low densities or very small physical dimensions as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The direct simulation Monte Carlo (or DSMC) method has, in recent years, become widely used in engineering and scientific studies of gas flows that involve low densities or very small physical dimensions. This method is a direct physical simulation of the motion of representative molecules, rather than a numerical solution of the equations that provide a mathematical model of the flow. These computations are no longer expensive and the period since the 1976 publication of the original Molecular Gas Dynamics has seen enormous improvements in the molecular models, the procedures, and the implementation strategies for the DSMC method. The molecular theory of gas flows is developed from first principles and is extended to cover the new models and procedures. Note: The disk that originally came with this book is no longer available. However, the same information is available from the author's website (http://gab.com.au/)
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the difference between the maximum and the minimum pressure at a point may be of considerable magnitude when the density of the gas is small enough, and when the inequalities of temperature are produced by small solid bodies at a higher or lower temperature than the vessel containing the gas.
Abstract: 1. In this paper I have followed the method given in my paper “On the Dynamical Theory of Gases” (Phil. Trans., 1867, p. 49). I have shown that when inequalities of temperature exist in a gas, the pressure at a given point is not the same in all directions, and that the difference between the maximum and the minimum pressure at a point may be of considerable magnitude when the density of the gas is small enough, and when the inequalities of temperature are produced by small solid bodies at a higher or lower temperature than the vessel containing the gas. 2. The nature of this stress may be thus defined:— Let the distance from a given point, measured in a given direction, be denoted by h; then the space-variation of the temperature for a point moving along this line will be denoted by dθ/dh, and the spaced variation of this quantity along the same line by d2θ/dh2.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present results from molecular dynamics simulations of newtonian liquids under shear which indicate that there exists a general nonlinear relationship between the amount of slip and the local shear rate at a solid surface.
Abstract: Modelling fluid flows past a surface is a general problem in science and engineering, and requires some assumption about the nature of the fluid motion (the boundary condition) at the solid interface. One of the simplest boundary conditions is the no-slip condition1,2, which dictates that a liquid element adjacent to the surface assumes the velocity of the surface. Although this condition has been remarkably successful in reproducing the characteristics of many types of flow, there exist situations in which it leads to singular or unrealistic behaviour—for example, the spreading of a liquid on a solid substrate3,4,5,6,7,8, corner flow9,10 and the extrusion of polymer melts from a capillary tube11,12,13. Numerous boundary conditions that allow for finite slip at the solid interface have been used to rectify these difficulties4,5,11,13,14. But these phenomenological models fail to provide a universal picture of the momentum transport that occurs at liquid/solid interfaces. Here we present results from molecular dynamics simulations of newtonian liquids under shear which indicate that there exists a general nonlinear relationship between the amount of slip and the local shear rate at a solid surface. The boundary condition is controlled by the extent to which the liquid ‘feels’ corrugations in the surface energy of the solid (owing in the present case to the atomic close-packing). Our generalized boundary condition allows us to relate the degree of slip to the underlying static properties and dynamic interactions of the walls and the fluid.
TL;DR: In this article, the velocity profiles of water flowing through 30×300 μm channels were measured to within 450 nm of the micro-channel surface and the measured velocity profiles were consistent with solutions of Stokes' equation and the well accepted no-slip boundary condition.
Abstract: Micron-resolution particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity profiles of water flowing through 30×300 μm channels. The velocity profiles are measured to within 450 nm of the microchannel surface. When the surface is hydrophilic (uncoated glass), the measured velocity profiles are consistent with solutions of Stokes’ equation and the well-accepted no-slip boundary condition. However, when the microchannel surface is coated with a 2.3 nm thick monolayer of hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane, an apparent velocity slip is measured just above the solid surface. This velocity is approximately 10% of the free-stream velocity and yields a slip length of approximately 1 μm. For this slip length, slip flow is negligible for length scales greater than 1 mm, but must be considered at the micro- and nano scales.
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the variation of viscosity in a fluid can cause instability, however small the Reynolds number is, and that the unstable modes are in the neighbourhood of a hidden neutral mode for the case of a single fluid, which is entirely ignored in the usual theory of hydrodynamic stability.
Abstract: The principal aim of this paper is to show that the variation of viscosity in a fluid can cause instability. Plane Couette-Poiseuille flow of two superposed layers of fluids of different viscosities between two horizontal plates is considered, and it is found that both plane Poiseuille flow and plane Couette flow can be unstable, however small the Reynolds number is. The unstable modes are in the neighbourhood of a hidden neutral mode for the case of a single fluid, which is entirely ignored in the usual theory of hydrodynamic stability, and are brought out by the viscosity stratification.