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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18052455

Link between Viral Infections, Immune System, Inflammation and Diet.

02 Mar 2021-International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (MDPI AG)-Vol. 18, Iss: 5, pp 2455
Abstract: The strong spread of COVID-19 and the significant number of deaths associated with it could be related to improper lifestyles, which lead to a low-grade inflammation (LGI) that not only increases the risk of chronic diseases, but also the risk of facing complications relating to infections and a greater susceptibility to infections themselves. Recently, scientific research has widely demonstrated that the microbiota plays a fundamental role in modulating metabolic responses in the immune system. There is, in fact, a two-way interaction between lifestyle, infection, and immunity. The immune response is compromised if nutrition is unbalanced or insufficient, because diet affects the intestinal flora predisposing people to infections and, at the same time, the nutritional state can be aggravated by the immune response itself to the infection. We evaluate the link between balanced diet, the efficiency of the immune system, and microbiota with the aim of providing some practical advice for individuals, with special attention to the elderly. A correct lifestyle that follows the Mediterranean model, which is especially rich in plant-based foods along with the use of extra-virgin olive oil, are the basis of preventing LGI and other chronic pathologies, directly influencing the intestinal microbiota and consequently the immune response.

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Topics: Immune system (51%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18147266
Abstract: One of the micronutrients that has attracted the most attention in relation to COVID-19 is vitamin D. Although several factors affect its sufficiency; it has been argued that an optimal diet can ensure the intake of micronutrients with effects on immune response. Therefore, in this work we aimed to evaluate the food intake quality of SARS-CoV-2 positive Mexican patients and some of the common factors related to vitamin D deficiency. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Serum samples and clinical parameters were collected. Micronutrient intake and food intake quality were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall and the Mini-ECCA v.2, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the sample had a healthy food intake. The median 25(OH)D concentration was 22.7 ng/mL. A considerable insufficient intake of micronutrients with immunomodulatory effects such as vitamin D (p 30 ng/mL, had better food intake quality (p = 0.02) and an intense physical activity (p = 0.03). In conclusion, a better level of food intake quality and intense physical activity are associated with 25(OH)D sufficiency in SARS-CoV-2 positive Mexican patients.

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Topics: Micronutrient (57%), vitamin D deficiency (56%), Vitamin (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18126435
Abstract: Healthy diet and supplement use may prove as sustainable strategies to lower COVID-19 infection. Our study investigated the dietary changes before and during lockdown and observed dietary supplements (DS) use among residents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study collected data via an online electronic survey questionnaire among males (N = 921) and females (N = 1044) residing in Saudi Arabia, 15 years of age and above. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of males (before vs. during lockdown) having improved changes in dietary habit (68.6% vs. 65.8%; p = 0.004), which was similar in female participants (69 vs. 73.4% vs. 69%; p < 0.001). The frequency of multivitamin users among COVID-19 participants was significantly lower than non-users (44.4 vs. 55.6; p < 0.003). Male respondents within 26-35 years of age were more likely to use multivitamin supplements than females (30.1 vs. 22.6%; p < 0.05) of same age group. Predictors for DS use were increased age group, income, education level and COVID-19 status. In conclusion, an increase in unhealthy diet behavior was observed among Saudi males and females during the pandemic lockdown and the predictors of DS use included increased age, income, education level and COVID-19 status.

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Topics: Multivitamin (54%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13062116
20 Jun 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: The Kaliningrad region is known for its specific climate, which can negatively affect the adaptive potential of the body. This manifests in an increased incidence of respiratory diseases and skin conditions. To prevent high morbidity, a plant protein product was included in the diet of first-year university students. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this food intervention in preventing the most common diseases among Kaliningrad students. Two groups of university students took part in the food trial. In the control group, catabolic processes prevailed in nutrient metabolism. Disadaptation manifested itself in the metabolism of proteins, vitamins, minerals, hematopoiesis and humoral immunity. Inflammation was indicated by α1- and α2-globulins, a weak immune response, and IgM and IgG. High oxidative stress and low antioxidative ability of blood serum were observed. The plant-based protein product (FP) helped preserve testosterone level and prevent an increase in catabolic reactions. Moreover, it had a positive effect on both red blood cell hematopoiesis (a smaller increase in the average volume of erythrocytes, the same average concentration and content of hemoglobin, an increased relative red cell distribution width (RDW) and white blood cell hematopoiesis (a beneficial effect for the immune system: lymphocytes, the relative content of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils). The stimulation of humoral immunity was evidenced by beta- and gamma-globulins, an active immune response, the level of IgM and IgG, antioxidant protection, reduction of peroxides and an increase in antioxidant activity of blood serum. The 34-week observation showed a 1.7-fold decrease in the incidence of respiratory illnesses and a 5.7-fold decrease in skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases. Acute respiratory infections were reduced 1.8-fold. There were no cases of community-acquired pneumonia in the treatment group, compared with 55.1‰ in the control group. The incidence of respiratory diseases was 3.3-10.6 times lower in the treatment group than in the control group in weeks 6-19. The findings testify to the prophylactic effect of functional food during social adaptation and acclimatization of students.

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Topics: Blood serum (58%), Plant protein (55%), White blood cell (55%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12603-021-1675-6
Elisa Mazza, Yvelise Ferro1, Roberta Pujia, Rosario Mare  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The World elderly population is expected to double before 2050. Unhealthy habits and unhealthy lifestyles are commonly associated with age-related diseases or their worsening. Modification in daily lifestyle and diet may help preventing age-related diseases onset and efficiently affecting their evolution, thus promoting the Healthy Aging process, concept recently coined to describe the disease-free aging process. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging. Since the Mediterranean Model demonstrated to be a useful style in supporting healthy aging, promotion of this correct lifestyle by health policies seems to be the best approach to achieve this target.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40520-021-01991-Z
Abstract: The identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk factors is requested to implement prevention strategies. To explore the associations between the COVID-19 incidence and malnutrition, sarcopenia, and frailty, identified as potential risk factors in previous cross-sectional studies. Malnutrition, sarcopenia, and frailty were assessed at the last available follow-up from the Sarcopenia and Physical Impairments with Advancing Age (SarcoPhAge) cohort (i.e., the fifth year that ended in 2019) according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment short-form, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2), and the Fried criteria, respectively. Information regarding the COVID-19 was gathered by phone calls interviews in April 2021 to measure its self-declared incidence. Adjusted Cox regressions and Kaplan–Meier curves were performed. The present study included 241 participants [median age 75.6 (73.0–80.6) years, 63.1% women]. Among them, 27 participants (11.2%) developed the non-fatal Covid-19. No significant increased risks of COVID-19 were observed in patients with malnutrition [adjusted HR 1.14 (0.26–5.07)] and sarcopenia [adjusted HR 1.25 (0.35–4.42)]. Nevertheless, the incidence of COVID-19 was significantly higher in frail (44.4%) than in robust participants (8.5%) [Adjusted HR 7.01 (2.69–18.25)], which was confirmed by the Kaplan–Meier curves (p < 0.001). Among the frailty syndrome components, a low physical activity level was the only one significantly associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 [adjusted HR 5.18 (1.37–19.54)]. Despite some limitations in the methodology of this study (i.e., limited sample size, COVID-19 incidence self-reported and not assessed systematically using objective measurements) requiring careful consideration, an increased risk to develop COVID-19 was observed in the presence of the frailty syndrome. Further investigations are needed to elaborate on our findings.

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Topics: Frailty syndrome (62%), Sarcopenia (59%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... show more

15,279 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GERONA/56.3.M146
Abstract: Background: Frailty is considered highly prevalent in old age and to confer high risk for falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frailty has been considered synonymous with disability, comorbidity, and other characteristics, but it is recognized that it may have a biologic basis and be a distinct clinical syndrome. A standardized definition has not yet been established. Methods: To develop and operationalize a phenotype of frailty in older adults and assess concurrent and predictive validity, the study used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants were 5,317 men and women 65 years and older (4,735 from an original cohort recruited in 1989-90 and 582 from an African American cohort recruited in 1992-93). Both cohorts received almost identical baseline evaluations and 7 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively, with annual examinations and surveillance for outcomes including incident disease, hospitalization, falls, disability, and mortality. Results: Frailty was defined as a clinical syndrome in which three or more of the following criteria were present: unintentional weight loss (10 lbs in past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. The overall prevalence of frailty in this community-dwelling population was 6.9%; it increased with age and was greater in women than men. Four-year incidence was 7.2%. Frailty was associated with being African American, having lower education and income, poorer health, and having higher rates of comorbid chronic diseases and disability. There was overlap, but not concordance, in the cooccurrence of frailty, comorbidity, and disability. This frailty phenotype was independently predictive (over 3 years) of incident falls, worsening mobility or ADL disability, hospitalization, and death, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.82 to 4.46, unadjusted, and 1.29-2.24, adjusted for a number of health, disease, and social characteristics predictive of 5-year mortality. Intermediate frailty status, as indicated by the presence of one or two criteria, showed intermediate risk of these outcomes as well as increased risk of becoming frail over 3-4 years of follow-up (odds ratios for incident frailty = 4.51 unadjusted and 2.63 adjusted for covariates, compared to those with no frailty criteria at baseline). Conclusions: This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition. It also finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty. Finally, it provides evidence that frailty is not synonymous with either comorbidity or disability, but comorbidity is an etiologic risk factor for, and disability is an outcome of, frailty. This provides a potential basis for clinical assessment for those who are frail or at risk, and for future research to develop interventions for frailty based on a standardized ascertainment of frailty.

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Topics: Frailty syndrome (71%), Risk factor (52%), Comorbidity (52%) ... show more

12,911 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X
Zhe Xu1, Lei Shi1, Yijin Wang, Ji-Yuan Zhang1  +14 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: bPortuguese Abstract:O surto do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) em Wuhan, China, iniciado em dezembro de 2019, evoluiu para se tornar uma pandemia global A

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5,215 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.6775
26 May 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.

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Topics: Interquartile range (55%), Respiratory virus (51%)

5,140 Citations


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