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Journal ArticleDOI

Lipedema: an overview of its clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the disproportional fatty deposition syndrome - systematic review.

01 Jun 2012-Clinical obesity (Clin Obes)-Vol. 2, pp 86-95

TL;DR: Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory for this disorder otherwise gradual enlargement of fatty deposition causes impaired mobility and further comorbidities like arthrosis and lymphatic insufficiency.

AbstractLipedema is a disproportionate, symmetrical fatty swelling characterized by pain and bruising existing almost exclusively among women. We undertook a systematic review of the available literature about lipedema, given the lack of knowledge and little evidence about this disorder especially among obesity experts. Diagnosis of lipedema is usually based on clinical features. Symmetrical edema in the lower limbs with fatty deposits located to hips and thighs usually appears at puberty and often affects several members of the same family. Main disorders considered for differential diagnosis are lymphedema, obesity, lipohypertrophy and phlebedema. Treatment protocols comprise conservative (decongestive lymphatic therapy) and surgical (liposuction) approaches. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory for this disorder otherwise gradual enlargement of fatty deposition causes impaired mobility and further comorbidities like arthrosis and lymphatic insufficiency.

Topics: Lymphedema (54%), Lipoedema (53%)

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Citations
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01 Aug 2011
TL;DR: The use of “red flags” to guide decisions about the need for further investigation of suspected vertebral fracture in patients presenting with low-back pain is unfounded, and an updated review provides mixed relief for people with diabetes suffering from foot ulcers.
Abstract: The use of “red flags” (specific information from the clinical history and examination used as sentinels of disease) to guide decisions about the need for further investigation of suspected vertebral fracture in patients presenting with low-back pain is unfounded. That’s the discouraging conclusion of the latest diagnostic test accuracy review. The authors looked at eight studies and found that many red flags have high falsepositive rates. The limited evidence makes recommending specific red flags a challenge, but three (older age, significant trauma and corticosteroid use) were more promising, and combinations of red flags were more informative than individual tests (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008643.pub2). The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease comes under the spotlight in one new and one updated review. Selenium supplementation is aggressively marketed in some quarters, but the evidence from a new review of 12 studies involving nearly 20 000 participants does not support its use, especially in populations with adequate selenium status. Furthermore, the authors are cautious not to rule out the possibility of an increased risk of type 2 diabetes from taking selenium-only supplements (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009671. pub2). More definitive is the evidence to support the use of statins in people at low risk of cardiovascular disease. This comes from an updated review that now includes data on 57 000 participants from 18 randomised trials. Statins reduced major vascular events as well as all-cause mortality. Added bonuses were the absence of serious harms and the likelihood that statins are cost-effective (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004816.pub5). An updated review provides mixed relief for people with diabetes suffering from foot ulcers. Non-removable, pressure-relieving casts heal ulcers more effectively than removable casts or dressings alone, but this comes at the price of restricted movement and a possible decrease in quality of life (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002302.pub2). Hiccups are a passing nuisance for most of us, but spare a thought for the few who suffer from persistent or intractable hiccups (defined as lasting for more than 48 hours and more than 1 month, respectively). Unfortunately, there’s little relief in sight, since the four poor-quality trials reviewed all investigated treatment with acupuncture and showed that it may be no better than placebo (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008768.pub2). Find these and other new and updated reviews this month in The Cochrane Library at www.thecochranelibrary.com. From The Cochrane Library

123 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Treatment in the maintenance phase should include compression garments, self-management, including self-massage, meticulous personal hygiene and skin care, in addition to lymphtransport-promoting excercises and activities, and, if desired, pneumatic compression therapy applied in the home.
Abstract: Primary lymphedema can be managed effectively as a form of chronic lymphedema by a sequenced and targeted treatment and management program based around a combination of Decongestive Lymphatic Therapy (DLT) with compression therapy, when the latter is desired as an adjunct to DLT. Treatment in the maintenance phase should include compression garments, self-management, including self-massage, meticulous personal hygiene and skin care, in addition to lymphtransport-promoting excercises and activities, and, if desired, pneumatic compression therapy applied in the home. When conservative treatment fails, or gives sub-optimal outcomes, the management of primary lymphedema can be improved, where appropriate, with the proper addition of surgical interventions, either reconstructive or ablative. These two surgical therapies can be more effective when fully integrated with manual lymphatic drainage (MLD)-based DLT postoperatively. Compliance with a long-term commitment to MLD/DLT and particularly compression postoperatively is a critical factor in determining the success of any new treatment strategy involving either reconstructive or palliative surgery. The future of management of primary lymphedema has never been brighter with the new prospect of gene-and perhaps stem-cell oriented management.

89 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: According to the hypothesis, lipedema is an estrogen-regulated polygenetic disease, which manifests in parallel with feminine hormonal changes and leads to vasculo- and lymphangiopathy and is likely to be a secondary phenomenon maintaining a vicious cycle.
Abstract: Lipedema is a common, but often underdiagnosed masquerading disease of obesity, which almost exclusively affects females. There are many debates regarding the diagnosis as well as the treatment strategies of the disease. The clinical diagnosis is relatively simple, however, knowledge regarding the pathomechanism is less than limited and curative therapy does not exist at all demanding an urgent need for extensive research. According to our hypothesis, lipedema is an estrogen-regulated polygenetic disease, which manifests in parallel with feminine hormonal changes and leads to vasculo- and lymphangiopathy. Inflammation of the peripheral nerves and sympathetic innervation abnormalities of the subcutaneous adipose tissue also involving estrogen may be responsible for neuropathy. Adipocyte hyperproliferation is likely to be a secondary phenomenon maintaining a vicious cycle. Herein, the relevant articles are reviewed from 1913 until now and discussed in context of the most likely mechanisms leading to the disease, which could serve as a starting point for further research.

55 citations


Cites background from "Lipedema: an overview of its clinic..."

  • ...Decongestive lymphatic therapy including manual lymphatic drainage, physical exercise, multilayered and multicomponent compression bandaging and meticulous skin care is the standard conservative approach for lipedema treatment [5]....

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  • ...8% of the patients in their unit with enlargement of the lower limbs between 2005 and 2012 [5]....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: A consensus on the diagnostic guidelines for patients with lymphedema is defined, based upon literature­based evidence, both clinical and investigative, based on the impact of this complex condition on social, emotional, and physical function.
Abstract: The current document is intended to define a consensus on the diagnostic guidelines for patients with lymphedema, based upon literature­based evidence, both clinical and investigative. General diagnostic guidelines include systemic evaluation; assessment of venous function; duplex ultrasonography; and lymphoscintigraphy. Proper diagnosis should allow appropriate clinical and laboratory staging of the disease for the assessment of progression of the condition and its response to treatment. Diagnosis should include an assessment of the infections in the early and latent stages. Lymphedema is assessed by the stage of disease (0­III) and WHO guidelines for International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Quality of Life issues can be used as a reference for the impact of this complex condition on social, emotional, and physical function. It is the authors’ intent that this document stimulate further inquiry and discussion regarding all aspects of lymphedema diagnosis.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Long‐term results following liposuction in patients with lipoedema are available only for an average period of 4 years.
Abstract: Background Long-term results following liposuction in patients with lipoedema are available only for an average period of 4 years. Objective To find out whether the improvement of complaints persists for a further 4 years. Methods In a single-centre study, 85 patients with lipoedema had already been examined after 4 years. A mail questionnaire ‐ often in combination with clinical controls ‐ was repeated after another 4 years (8 years after liposuction). Results Compared with the results after 4 years, the improvement in spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, oedema, bruising and restriction of movement persisted. The same held true for patient self-assessment of cosmetic appearance, quality of life and overall impairment. Eight years after surgery, the reduction in the amount of conservative treatment (combined decongestive therapy, compression garments) was similar to that observed 4 years earlier. Conclusion These results demonstrate for the first time the long-lasting positive effects of liposuction in patients with lipoedema. What’s already known about this topic? • The longest follow-up studies after liposuction performed in patients with lipoedema were performed over an average period of 4 years.

49 citations


References
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01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: It is proposed that the chapters on external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status and contact with health services, should form an integral part of ICD-10, for the first time in its history based on an alphanumeric coding scheme.
Abstract: The International Classification of Diseases has, under various names, been for many decades the essential tool for national and international comparability in public health. This statistical tool has been customarily revised every 10 years in order to keep up with the advances of medicine. At first intended primarily for the classification of causes of death, its scope has been progressively widening to include coding and tabulation of causes of morbidity as well as medical record indexing and retrieval. The ability to exchange comparable data from region to region and from country to country, to allow comparison from one population to another and to permit study of diseases over long periods, is one of the strengths of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD). WHO has been responsible for the organization, coordination and execution of activities related to ICD since 1948 (Sixth Revision of the ICD) and is now proceeding with the Tenth Revision. For the first time in its history the ICD will be based on an alphanumeric coding scheme and will have to function as a core classification from which a series of modules can be derived, each reaching a different degree of specificity and adapted to a particular specialty or type of user. It is proposed that the chapters on external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status and contact with health services, which were supplementary classifications in ICD-9, should form an integral part of ICD-10. The title of ICD has been amended to "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems"', but the abbreviation "ICD" will be retained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1,664 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

244 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: It is shown that whilst good evidence for the use of compression is available in some clinical indications, there is much still to be discovered.
Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to review published literature concerning the use of compression treatments in the management of venous and lymphatic diseases and establish where reliable evidence exists to justify the use of medical compression and where further research is required to address areas of uncertainty. Methods The authors searched medical literature databases and reviewed their own collections of papers, monographs and books for papers providing information about the effects of compression and randomized clinical trials of compression devices. Papers were classified in accordance with the recommendations of the GRADE group to categorize their scientific reliability. Further classification was made according to the particular clinical problem that was addressed in the papers. The review included papers on compression stockings, bandages and intermittent pneumatic compression devices. Results The International Compression Club met once in Vienna and corresponded by email in order to reach an agreement of how the data should be interpreted. A wide range of compression levels was reported to be effective. Low levels of compression 10-30 mmHg applied by stockings are effective in the management of telangiectases after sclerotherapy, varicose veins in pregnancy, the prevention of edema and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). High levels of compression produced by bandaging and strong compression stockings (30-40 mmHg) are effective at healing leg ulcers and preventing progression of post-thrombotic syndrome as well as in the management of lymphedema. In some areas no reliable evidence was available to permit recommendations of level of compression or duration of treatment. These included: management of varicose veins to prevent progression, following surgical treatment or sclerotherapy for varicose veins, and the level of compression required to treat acute DVT. Conclusion This review shows that whilst good evidence for the use of compression is available in some clinical indications, there is much still to be discovered. Little is know about dosimetry in compression, for how long and at what level compression should be applied. The differing effects of elastic and short-stretch compression are also little understood.

227 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The common differential diagnosis in Western patients with lower limb swelling is secondary lymphedema, venous disease, lipedema, and adverse reaction to ipsilateral limb surgery.
Abstract: Hypothesis The causes and management of lower limb lymphedema in the Western population are different from those in the developing world. Objective To look at the differential diagnosis, methods of investigation, and available treatments for lower limb lymphedema in the West. Data Source A PubMed search was conducted for the years 1980-2002 with the keyword "lymphedema." English language and human subject abstracts only were analyzed, and only those articles dealing with lower limb lymphedema were further reviewed. Other articles were extracted from cross-referencing. Results Four hundred twenty-five review articles pertaining to lymphedema were initially examined. This review summarizes the findings of relevant articles along with our own practice regarding the management of lymphedema. Conclusions The common differential diagnosis in Western patients with lower limb swelling is secondary lymphedema, venous disease, lipedema, and adverse reaction to ipsilateral limb surgery. Lymphedema can be confirmed by a lymphoscintigram, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. The lymphatic anatomy is demonstrated with lymphoscintigraphy, which is particularly indicated if surgical intervention is being considered. The treatment of choice for lymphedema is multidisciplinary. In the first instance, combined physical therapy should be commenced (complete decongestive therapy), with surgery reserved for a small number of cases.

200 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed that lipedema is a genetic condition with either X‐linked dominant inheritance or more likely, autosomal dominant inheritance with sex limitation, and appears to be a condition almost exclusively affecting females, presumably estrogen‐requiring as it usually manifests at puberty.
Abstract: Lipedema is a condition characterized by swelling and enlargement of the lower limbs due to abnormal deposition of subcutaneous fat. Lipedema is an under-recognized condition, often misdiagnosed as lymphedema or dismissed as simple obesity. We present a series of pedigrees and propose that lipedema is a genetic condition with either X-linked dominant inheritance or more likely, autosomal dominant inheritance with sex limitation. Lipedema appears to be a condition almost exclusively affecting females, presumably estrogen-requiring as it usually manifests at puberty. Lipedema is an entity distinct from obesity, but may be wrongly diagnosed as primary obesity, due to clinical overlap. The phenotype suggests a condition distinct from obesity and associated with pain, tenderness, and easy bruising in affected areas.

129 citations


"Lipedema: an overview of its clinic..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These strong familial background suggests that lipedema is a genetic disorder (22)....

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  • ...have recently found a Pit-1 mutation in members of a family with lipedema (47) and screening of lipedema family members strongly suggests inheritance (22)....

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