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Journal ArticleDOI

Lipid changes of goat sperm plasma membrane during epididymal maturation

30 Jan 1991-Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Elsevier)-Vol. 1061, Iss: 2, pp 185-196

TL;DR: The altered lipid profile of the mature sperm membrane leads to changes in its fluidity that play an important role in determining the structure and functions of the biomembrane.

AbstractHighly purified plasma membranes of maturing goat caput-, corpus- and cauda-epididymal spermatozoa were isolated by aqueous two-phase polymer methods and their lipid constituents were analysed. Phospholipid (approx. 75% w/w), neutral lipid (approx. 15% w/w) and glycolipid (approx. 10% w/w) were the major sperm membrane lipids. There was a significant decrease in the total lipids (approx. 25% w/w), phospholipid (approx. 30% w/w) and glycolipid (approx. 80% w/w) contents of sperm membrane during epididymal maturation. On the contrary, the mature cauda-sperm membrane showed greater (approx. 50% w/w) neutral lipid content than that of the immature caput sperm. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin were the phospholipids of the sperm membrane, the former two being the major lipids. Both PC and PE fractions consisted of three species--diacyl, alkylacyl and alkenylacyl forms, the last one being the dominant species in both PC and PE. Of all the phospholipids, diacyl PE decreased most strikingly (approx. 65% w/w) during sperm maturation. The neutral lipid fraction contained sterols, wax esters, 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids. Sterols represented nearly 75% w/w of the neutral lipids and cholesterol was the major component (approx. 95% w/w) of the sterol fraction. The sperm maturity was associated with marked increase of sterol (approx. 60% w/w) and steryl ester (approx. 200% w/w) and decrease (approx. 50-65% w/w) of the other membrane-bound neutral lipids. The glycolipid was identified as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The fatty acid profile of the various membrane lipids underwent marked alteration during the epididymal transit of the male gametes. Cholesterol/phospholipid and saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratios increased greatly in the maturing sperm membrane. The altered lipid profile of the mature sperm membrane leads to changes in its fluidity that play an important role in determining the structure and functions of the biomembrane.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that HSL is required for spermatogenesis but is not the only enzyme that mediates the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol stored in adipocytes, and that adipocytes were significantly enlarged and the size differences between cell and tissue suggests the heterogeneity of adipocytes.
Abstract: Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is known to mediate the hydrolysis not only of triacylglycerol stored in adipose tissue but also of cholesterol esters in the adrenals, ovaries, testes, and macrophages. To elucidate its precise role in the development of obesity and steroidogenesis, we generated HSL knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the mutant HSL allele (HSL−/−) were superficially normal except that the males were sterile because of oligospermia. HSL−/− mice did not have hypogonadism or adrenal insufficiency. Instead, the testes completely lacked neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH) activities and contained increased amounts of cholesterol ester. Many epithelial cells in the seminiferous tubules were vacuolated. NCEH activities were completely absent from both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) in HSL−/− mice. Consistently, adipocytes were significantly enlarged in the BAT (5-fold) and, to a lesser extent in the WAT (2-fold), supporting the concept that the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol was, at least in part, impaired in HSL−/− mice. The BAT mass was increased by 1.65-fold, but the WAT mass remained unchanged. Discrepancy of the size differences between cell and tissue suggests the heterogeneity of adipocytes. Despite these morphological changes, HSL−/− mice were neither obese nor cold sensitive. Furthermore, WAT from HSL−/− mice retained 40% of triacylglycerol lipase activities compared with the wild-type WAT. In conclusion, HSL is required for spermatogenesis but is not the only enzyme that mediates the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol stored in adipocytes.

541 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

383 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model is proposed in which phospholipid scrambling induces the formation of an apical membrane raft in the sperm head surface that enables albumin mediated efflux of cholesterol.
Abstract: Mammalian sperm cells are activated prior to fertilization by high bicarbonate levels, which facilitate lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. The role of bicarbonate and cholesterol acceptors on the cholesterol organization in the sperm plasma membrane was tested. Bicarbonate induced an albumin-independent change in lipid architecture that was detectable by an increase in merocyanine staining (due to protein kinase A-mediated phospholipid scrambling). The response was limited to a subpopulation of viable sperm cells that were sorted from the non-responding subpopulation by flow cytometry. The responding cells had reduced cholesterol levels (30% reduction) compared with non-responding cells. The subpopulation differences were caused by variable efficiencies in epididymal maturation as judged by cell morphology. Membrane cholesterol organization was observed with filipin, which labeled the entire sperm surface of non-stimulated and non-responding cells, but labeled only the apical surface area of bicarbonate-responding cells. Addition of albumin caused cholesterol efflux, but only in bicarbonate-responding cells that exhibited virtually no filipin labeling in the sperm head area. Albumin had no effect on other lipid components, and no affinity for cholesterol in the absence of bicarbonate. Therefore, bicarbonate induces first a lateral redistribution in the low cholesterol containing spermatozoa, which in turn facilitates cholesterol extraction by albumin. A model is proposed in which phospholipid scrambling induces the formation of an apical membrane raft in the sperm head surface that enables albumin mediated efflux of cholesterol.

279 citations


Cites background from "Lipid changes of goat sperm plasma ..."

  • ...(1) Severe modifications in the lipid composition take place during this process, including a decrease in cholesterol (Rana et al., 1991; Haidl and Opper, 1997)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that the He1 homolog is a major cholesterol-binding protein in the porcine epididymal fluid and the possibility that the HE1 homology is involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of the sperm membranes during the maturation in epidIDymis is discussed.
Abstract: A porcine homolog of the major secretory protein of human epididymis, HE1, was for the first time purified from the porcine cauda epididymal fluid. The HE1 homolog was secreted into the epididymal fluid as a 19-kDa glycoprotein, whose sugar moiety was gradually processed to form a 16-kDa protein during transit through the epididymis. The HE1 homolog mRNA was detected only in the caput and corpus epididymis among the porcine tissues examined. The purified HE1 homolog specifically bound cholesterol with high affinity (Kd=2. 3 microM). The binding stoichiometry was determined to be 0.94 mol/mol, suggesting that 1 mol of cholesterol binds to 1 mol of the protein. It was also found that the HE1 homolog is a major cholesterol-binding protein in the porcine epididymal fluid. The possibility that the HE1 homolog is involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of the sperm membranes during the maturation in epididymis is discussed.

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In common mammals, sperm leaving the testis are incapable of fertilizing a female gamete, and when assessing sperm maturation it is necessary to establish the proportion of sperm that has completed and retained all steps of maturation necessary to achieve fertilization of oocytes under the conditions imposed.
Abstract: In common mammals, sperm leaving the testis are incapable of fertilizing a female gamete. Sperm have limited biosynthetic capability and need to minimize demand for ATP. Hence, modification of sperm to achieve their maturation requires pre-programmed cleavage of integral molecules (planned self-modification) and remodelling by action of molecules found in the suspending fluids. Most of these biocatalysts are secreted by a series of specialized regions in the epididymal epithelium, but some are provided in seminal plasma. The role of the epididymis in sperm maturation is postulated to be 'setting a series of triggers' each capable of initiating cellular changes either at emission or near or in the oocyte, and 'setting a safety' for each trigger to prevent premature occurrence of the event. The attributes required in a spermatozoon for in vitro fertilization and natural mating are different, and their expression is dependent on the site of sperm sampling. Some attributes needed for fertility are probably like an on-off switch, whereas others probably allow a gradually reduced probability of success before going to the off position (analogous to a conventional light switch and a dimmer-type light switch). All essential attributes of a spermatozoon must be expressed in a 'combined effective amount' for that cell to be fertile. Because of mixing, in any segment of the epididymal duct the population of sperm is heterogeneous in age and biological status. Thus, when assessing sperm maturation it is necessary to establish the proportion of sperm that has completed and retained all steps of maturation necessary to achieve fertilization of oocytes under the conditions imposed. In a normal animal, most sperm leaving the epididymis have a 'combined effective amount' of attributes, and the population has a high fertilizing potential.

186 citations


References
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Abstract: Separation of polar lipids by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography providing resolution of all the lipid classes commonly encountered in animal cells and a sensitive, rapid, reproducible procedure for determination of phospholipids by phosphorus analysis of spots are described. Values obtained for brain and mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids are presented.

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