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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOLOGY10030184

Lipid Metabolism and Ferroptosis.

02 Mar 2021-Biology (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 10, Iss: 3, pp 184-184
Abstract: Ferroptosis is a type of iron-dependent regulated necrosis induced by lipid peroxidation that occurs in cellular membranes. Among the various lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) associated with several phospholipids, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), are responsible for ferroptosis-inducing lipid peroxidation. Since the de novo synthesis of PUFAs is strongly restricted in mammals, cells take up essential fatty acids from the blood and lymph to produce a variety of PUFAs via PUFA biosynthesis pathways. Free PUFAs can be incorporated into the cellular membrane by several enzymes, such as ACLS4 and LPCAT3, and undergo lipid peroxidation through enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. These pathways are tightly regulated by various metabolic and signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of how various lipid metabolic pathways are associated with lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. Our review will provide insight into treatment strategies for ferroptosis-related diseases.

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Topics: Lipid metabolism (61%), Lipid peroxidation (58%), GPX4 (55%) ... read more
Citations
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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BBRC.2021.06.051
Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase and mutations in EGFR is a major driver force of lung cancer. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are group of promising agents to treat cancer patients with EGFR mutations. However, the application of TKIs is often hampered by the development of drug-resistance. In the present study, we studied the role of Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in regulation of lung cancer cells response to Lapatinib (Lap). Lap resistant NSCLC cells A549/Lap and H1944/Lap were created and GPX4 was knockdown by lentivirus shGPX4. Change of cell viabilities and cell death were measured by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. ROS, MDA, GSH and Fe2+ were detected by commercial kits. Xenograft mice was used to assay the in vivo effects of GPX4 on the sensitivity of Lap. We found that GPX4 and mTORC1 signalling was upregulated in Lap resistant NSCLC cells when compared to Lap sensitive NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, upregulation of GPX4 was due to enhanced activation of mTORC1 in Lap resistant NSCLC cells. Inhibition of mTORC1 led to the downregulation of GPX4 which promoted Lap induced ferroptosis as evidenced by increase of ROS, MDA, Fe 2+ and decrease of GSH. Rescue experiments confirmed the role of GPX4 in regulation of Lap induced ferroptosis. In vivo experiments also indicated that silencing of GPX4 enhanced the anticancer effect of Lap via promoting ferroptosis. Overall, targeting GPX4 might be a potential strategy to enhance antitumor effects of Lap.

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Topics: Lapatinib (53%), Epidermal growth factor receptor (51%), Receptor tyrosine kinase (51%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.719865
Abstract: Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) represents the fifth cause of cancer death worldwide. Although survival has improved with second-generation androgen signaling and Parp inhibitors, the benefits are not long-lasting, and new therapeutic approaches are sorely needed. Lipids and their metabolism have recently reached the spotlight with accumulating evidence for their role as promoters of PCa development, progression, and metastasis. As a result, interest in targeting enzymes/transporters involved in lipid metabolism is rapidly growing. Moreover, the use of lipogenic signatures to predict prognosis and resistance to therapy has been recently explored with promising results. Despite the well-known association between obesity with PCa lethality, the underlying mechanistic role of diet/obesity-derived metabolites has only lately been unveiled. Furthermore, the role of lipids as energy source, building blocks, and signaling molecules in cancer cells has now been revisited and expanded in the context of the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is heavily influenced by the external environment and nutrient availability. Here, we describe how lipids, their enzymes, transporters, and modulators can promote PCa development and progression, and we emphasize the role of lipids in shaping TME. In a therapeutic perspective, we describe the ongoing efforts in targeting lipogenic hubs. Finally, we highlight studies supporting dietary modulation in the adjuvant setting with the purpose of achieving greater efficacy of the standard of care and of synthetic lethality. PCa progression is "a matter of fats", and the more we understand about the role of lipids as key players in this process, the better we can develop approaches to counteract their tumor promoter activity while preserving their beneficial properties.

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Topics: Energy source (51%), Lipid metabolism (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRANON.2021.101207
Lizhi Pang1, Harshit Shah1, Yi Xu2, Steven Y. Qian1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is a rate-limiting enzyme that introduces double-bonds to the delta-5 position of the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid chain. Since fatty acid metabolism is a vital factor in cancer development, several recent studies have revealed that D5D activity and expression could be an independent prognostic factor in cancers. However, the mechanistic basis of D5D in cancer progression is still controversial. The classical concept believes that D5D could aggravate cancer progression via mediating arachidonic acid (AA)/prostaglandin E2 production from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), resulting in activation of EP receptors, inflammatory pathways, and immunosuppression. On the contrary, D5D may prevent cancer progression through activating ferroptosis, which is iron-dependent cell death. Suppression of D5D by RNA interference and small-molecule inhibitor has been identified as a promising anti-cancer strategy. Inhibition of D5D could shift DGLA peroxidation pattern from generating AA to a distinct anti-cancer free radical byproduct, 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid, resulting in activation of apoptosis pathway and simultaneously suppression of cancer cell survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of D5D on cancer may therefore facilitate the development of novel therapeutical applications. Given that D5D may serve as a promising target in cancer, in this review, we provide an updated summary of current knowledge on the role of D5D in cancer development and potentially useful therapeutic strategies.

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Topics: Cancer (58%), Cancer cell (51%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.12.10.419911
Miriam Hernández-Morales1, Miriam Hernández-Morales2, Han2, Han1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
11 Dec 2020-bioRxiv
Abstract: FeRIC (Ferritin iron Redistribution to Ion Channels) is a magnetogenetic technique that uses radiofrequency (RF) waves to activate the transient receptor potential channels, such as TRPV1 and TRPV4, coupled to cellular ferritins. In cells expressing ferritin-tagged TRPV, RF stimulation increases the cytosolic Ca2+ levels via a biochemical pathway. The interaction between RF and ferritin increases the free cytosolic iron level that in turn, triggers chemical reactions producing reactive oxygen species and oxidized lipids that activate the ferritin-tagged TRPV. In this pathway, it is expected that experimental factors that disturb the ferritin expression, the ferritin iron load, the TRPV functional expression, or the cellular redox state will impact the RF efficacy to activate ferritin-tagged TRPV. Here, three in vitro protocols were compared for using FeRIC to remotely activate ferritin-tagged TRPV. Further, several experimental factors were examined that either enhance or abolish the RF control of ferritin-tagged TRPV. The findings may help establish reproducible magnetogenetic experimental protocols.

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Topics: TRPV (63%), Transient receptor potential channel (54%), Ferritin (52%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS222212234
Emilie Logie1, Bart Van Puyvelde2, Bart Cuypers1, Anne Schepers1  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Disease relapse and therapy resistance remain key challenges in treating multiple myeloma. Underlying (epi-)mutational events can promote myelomagenesis and contribute to multi-drug and apoptosis resistance. Therefore, compounds inducing ferroptosis, a form of iron and lipid peroxidation-regulated cell death, are appealing alternative treatment strategies for multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Both ferroptosis and the epigenetic machinery are heavily influenced by oxidative stress and iron metabolism changes. Yet, only a limited number of epigenetic enzymes and modifications have been identified as ferroptosis regulators. In this study, we found that MM1 multiple myeloma cells are sensitive to ferroptosis induction and epigenetic reprogramming by RSL3, irrespective of their glucocorticoid-sensitivity status. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the formation of non-heme iron-histone complexes and altered expression of histone modifications associated with DNA repair and cellular senescence. In line with this observation, EPIC BeadChip measurements of significant DNA methylation changes in ferroptotic myeloma cells demonstrated an enrichment of CpG probes located in genes associated with cell cycle progression and senescence, such as Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A member 2 (NR4A2). Overall, our data show that ferroptotic cell death is associated with an epigenomic stress response that might advance the therapeutic applicability of ferroptotic compounds.

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Topics: Epigenomics (59%), Epigenetics (57%), DNA methylation (56%) ... read more

References
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104 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05292
Michael T. Lin1, M. Flint Beal1Institutions (1)
19 Oct 2006-Nature
Abstract: Many lines of evidence suggest that mitochondria have a central role in ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria are critical regulators of cell death, a key feature of neurodegeneration. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA and oxidative stress both contribute to ageing, which is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In all major examples of these diseases there is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early and acts causally in disease pathogenesis. Moreover, an impressive number of disease-specific proteins interact with mitochondria. Thus, therapies targeting basic mitochondrial processes, such as energy metabolism or free-radical generation, or specific interactions of disease-related proteins with mitochondria, hold great promise.

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Topics: DNAJA3 (62%), mitochondrial fusion (61%), Neurodegeneration (58%) ... read more

4,742 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2012.03.042
25 May 2012-Cell
Abstract: Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration.

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Topics: Programmed cell death (53%), SLC7A11 (52%), Cancer cell (50%) ... read more

3,349 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM3311
Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial cellular energy sensor. Once activated by falling energy status, it promotes ATP production by increasing the activity or expression of proteins involved in catabolism while conserving ATP by switching off biosynthetic pathways. AMPK also regulates metabolic energy balance at the whole-body level. For example, it mediates the effects of agents acting on the hypothalamus that promote feeding and entrains circadian rhythms of metabolism and feeding behaviour. Finally, recent studies reveal that AMPK conserves ATP levels through the regulation of processes other than metabolism, such as the cell cycle and neuronal membrane excitability.

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Topics: AMPK (70%), CAMKK2 (56%), Energy homeostasis (56%)

2,895 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM2256
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be toxic but also function as signalling molecules. This biological paradox underlies mechanisms that are important for the integrity and fitness of living organisms and their ageing. The pathways that regulate ROS homeostasis are crucial for mitigating the toxicity of ROS and provide strong evidence about specificity in ROS signalling. By taking advantage of the chemistry of ROS, highly specific mechanisms have evolved that form the basis of oxidant scavenging and ROS signalling systems.

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2,516 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2014/360438
Abstract: Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970–1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010–2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.

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Topics: Lipid peroxidation (67%), Lipid metabolism (62%), Malondialdehyde (52%) ... read more

2,480 Citations