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Journal ArticleDOI

Long-term impact of a real-world coordinated lifestyle promotion initiative in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study

16 Dec 2014-BMC Family Practice (BioMed Central)-Vol. 15, Iss: 1, pp 201-201

TL;DR: Lifestyle teams were perceived to have an important role at the centres in driving the lifestyle promotion work forward and being a forum for knowledge exchange but had limited impact on lifestyle promotion practices.

AbstractBackground Integration of lifestyle promotion in routine primary care has been suboptimal. Coordinated care models (e.g. screening, brief advice and referral to in-house specialized staff) could facilitate lifestyle promotion practice; they have been shown to increase the quality of services and reduce costs in other areas of care. This study evaluates the long-term impact of a coordinated lifestyle promotion intervention with a multidisciplinary team approach in a primary care setting.

Topics: Health promotion (57%), Referral (56%), Promotion (rank) (53%)

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Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Preventive interventions have yielded dramatic improvements in population health, with substantial benefits in patient-oriented outcomes including death from infectious disease and infant mortality.
Abstract: Historically, preventive interventions have yielded dramatic improvements in population health, with substantial benefits in patient-oriented outcomes including death from infectious disease and infant mortality. As medicine evolves, greater numbers of preventive and screening recommendations are

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Utilizing CQI methods in implementation research would appear to be well-suited to drive improvements in service delivery for unhealthy alcohol use, although the body of literature describing such studies is still small.
Abstract: Unhealthy alcohol use involves a spectrum from hazardous use (exceeding guidelines but no harms) through to alcohol dependence. Evidence-based management of unhealthy alcohol use in primary health care has been recommended since 1979. However, sustained and systematic implementation has proven challenging. The Continuing Quality Improvement (CQI) process is designed to enable services to detect barriers, then devise and implement changes, resulting in service improvements. We conducted a systematic review of literature reporting on strategies to improve implementation of screening and interventions for unhealthy alcohol use in primary care (MEDLINE EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Australian Indigenous Health InfoNet). Additional inclusion criteria were: (1) pragmatic setting; (2) reporting original data; (3) quantitative outcomes related to provision of service or change in practice. We investigate the extent to which the three essential elements of CQI are being used (data-guided activities, considering local conditions; iterative development). We compare characteristics of programs that include these three elements with those that do not. We describe the types, organizational levels (e.g. health service, practice, clinician), duration of strategies, and their outcomes. Fifty-six papers representing 45 projects were included. Of these, 24 papers were randomized controlled trials, 12 controlled studies and 20 before/after and other designs. Most reported on strategies for improving implementation of screening and brief intervention. Only six addressed relapse prevention pharmacotherapies. Only five reported on patient outcomes and none showed significant improvement. The three essential CQI elements were clearly identifiable in 12 reports. More studies with three essential CQI elements had implementation and follow-up durations above the median; utilised multifaceted designs; targeted both practice and health system levels; improved screening and brief intervention than studies without the CQI elements. Utilizing CQI methods in implementation research would appear to be well-suited to drive improvements in service delivery for unhealthy alcohol use. However, the body of literature describing such studies is still small. More well-designed research, including hybrid studies of both implementation and patient outcomes, will be needed to draw clearer conclusions on the optimal approach for implementing screening and treatment for unhealthy alcohol use. (PROSPERO registration ID: CRD42018110475).

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Spanish version of the Organizational Readiness for Knowledge Translation questionnaire exhibits very strong reliability and good validity, although it needs to be validated in a larger sample and in different implementation contexts.
Abstract: Organizational readiness to change healthcare practice is a major determinant of successful implementation of evidence-based interventions. However, we lack of comprehensive, valid, and reliable instruments to measure it. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Organizational Readiness for Knowledge Translation (OR4KT) questionnaire in the context of the implementation of the Prescribe Vida Saludable III project, which seeks to strengthen health promotion and chronic disease prevention in primary healthcare organizations of the Osakidetza (Basque Health Service, Spain). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 127 professionals from 20 primary care centers within Osakidetza. They filled in the OR4KT questionnaire twice in a 15- to 30-day period to test repeatability. In addition, we used the Survey of Organizational Attributes for Primary Care (SOAPC) and we documented the number of healthcare professionals who formally engaged in the Prescribe Vida Saludable III project within each participating center to assess concurrent validity. Cronbach’s alpha for the overall OR4KT was .95, and the overall repeatability coefficient was 6.95%, both excellent results. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the underlying theoretical structure of 6 dimensions and 23 sub-dimensions. There were positive moderate-to-high internal correlations between these six dimensions, and there was evidence of good concurrent validity (correlation coefficient of .76 with SOAPC, and .80 with the proportion of professionals engaged by center). A score higher than 64 (out of 100) would be indicative of an organization with high level of readiness to implement the intervention (sensitivity = .75, specificity = 1). The Spanish version of the OR4KT exhibits very strong reliability and good validity, although it needs to be validated in a larger sample and in different implementation contexts.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings showed how the development phase influenced the implementation and embedding processes, which add aspects to the General Theory of Implementation, and highlighted the importance of identifying and engaging key stakeholders early in an implementation process.
Abstract: Background: Primary care is increasingly being encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. However, implementation has been suboptimal. Coordinated care could facilitate li ...

8 citations


Cites background from "Long-term impact of a real-world co..."

  • ...Lifestyle team centres were more likely to agree that lifestyle promotion issues were prioritized at their workplace and that there were sufficient competency at their workplace regarding lifestyle promotion [30]....

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Dissertation
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: An alcohol intervention model that predicts life years, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and healthcare costs classified by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) screening tool and other various risk factors related to alcohol consumption was developed and transferred to the Thai setting.
Abstract: Objectives To develop an alcohol intervention model that predicts life years (LYs), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and healthcare costs classified by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) screening tool and other various risk factors related to alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the developed model was transferred to the Thai setting. Methods Eight Scottish Health Surveys from 1995-2012 were linked to Scottish morbidity records and death records for the period 1981 to the end of 2013. Parametric survival analysis was used to estimate the hazard risks of first alcohol-related and non-alcohol related hospitalisations and deaths. For men and women, multivariate data analyses were applied separately for each gender in modelling the utility score, risks of subsequent hospitalisation and annual healthcare costs within the follow-up period. Risk profiles were used for the covariates of the models as follows: age, socio-economic status, health condition, alcohol drinking (i.e. AUDIT and binge drinking), smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. According to the under-reporting bias of alcohol consumption among the survey population, this study adjusted the reported alcohol consumption using alcohol sales data. Multiple imputation approach was applied to deal with missing data. A health-state transition model with annual cycle length was developed to predict LYs, QALYs, lifetime costs, and cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was also performed to deal with parameter uncertainty. Moreover, a methodological transferability protocol of the Thai study was detailed. Results The sample size of the cohort was 46,230. The developed model showed the association between drinking and alcohol-related and non-alcohol related hospitalisations and deaths which were calculated as LYs and QALYs. Other risk factors were also taken into account that would likely affect the outcomes of interest. The modelling showed that an increasing AUDIT score and the number of cigarettes per day were associated with an increased risk of first alcohol-attributable hospitalisation. Predicted outcomes for a male aged 30 year with high-risk drinking levels (AUDIT >7) were worse than males with low risk drinking (AUDIT ≤7), with approximately 5 LY gained and 7 QALY gained. The same results for females were obtained for high-risk drinking (AUDIT >4) compared to low-risk drinking (AUDIT ≤4), with approximately 10 LY gained and 12 QALY gained. Furthermore, an economic evaluation was performed to compare the no-intervention situation with a hypothetical health promotion intervention - which aimed to stop drinking (measured by the AUDIT) and smoking (measured by the number of cigarettes per day) behaviours. To compare the costs and benefits of the hypothetical intervention and no intervention over the lifetime period, a within-trial analysis combined with the developed model was able to capture both short- and longer-term consequences (i.e. LYs, QALYs, and healthcare costs) of the intervention. Finally, the model was able to compare cost-effectiveness ratio between risk behaviours without the new intervention and the modified risk behaviours when the new intervention is implemented. Conclusions The study highlights the potential and importance of developing health economic models utilising data from routine national health surveys linked to national hospitalisation and death records. The developed framework can be used for further economic evaluation of alcohol interventions and other health behaviour change interventions. The framework can further be transferred to other country settings.

4 citations


Cites background from "Long-term impact of a real-world co..."

  • ...…complex multi-levels of components, i.e. the policy, environment, and individual levels, evaluating these interventions requires evidence beyond efficacy trials to measure the potential impacts of the interventions, especially in real-world settings (Koorts and Gillison, 2015, Thomas et al., 2014)....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: History Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide
Abstract: History Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide

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"Long-term impact of a real-world co..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Interview data were analysed using deductive problem-driven content analysis [40]....

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01 Jan 2003

11,134 citations


"Long-term impact of a real-world co..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Background Lifestyle-related illness and disease such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are among the leading causes of death worldwide [1,2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Rafael Lozano1, Mohsen Naghavi1, Kyle J Foreman2, Stephen S Lim1  +192 moreInstitutions (95)
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex, using the Cause of Death Ensemble model.
Abstract: Summary Background Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex. Methods We attempted to identify all available data on causes of death for 187 countries from 1980 to 2010 from vital registration, verbal autopsy, mortality surveillance, censuses, surveys, hospitals, police records, and mortuaries. We assessed data quality for completeness, diagnostic accuracy, missing data, stochastic variations, and probable causes of death. We applied six different modelling strategies to estimate cause-specific mortality trends depending on the strength of the data. For 133 causes and three special aggregates we used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach, which uses four families of statistical models testing a large set of different models using different permutations of covariates. Model ensembles were developed from these component models. We assessed model performance with rigorous out-of-sample testing of prediction error and the validity of 95% UIs. For 13 causes with low observed numbers of deaths, we developed negative binomial models with plausible covariates. For 27 causes for which death is rare, we modelled the higher level cause in the cause hierarchy of the GBD 2010 and then allocated deaths across component causes proportionately, estimated from all available data in the database. For selected causes (African trypanosomiasis, congenital syphilis, whooping cough, measles, typhoid and parathyroid, leishmaniasis, acute hepatitis E, and HIV/AIDS), we used natural history models based on information on incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality. We separately estimated cause fractions by aetiology for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and meningitis, as well as disaggregations by subcause for chronic kidney disease, maternal disorders, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. For deaths due to collective violence and natural disasters, we used mortality shock regressions. For every cause, we estimated 95% UIs that captured both parameter estimation uncertainty and uncertainty due to model specification where CODEm was used. We constrained cause-specific fractions within every age-sex group to sum to total mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. Findings In 2010, there were 52·8 million deaths globally. At the most aggregate level, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes were 24·9% of deaths worldwide in 2010, down from 15·9 million (34·1%) of 46·5 million in 1990. This decrease was largely due to decreases in mortality from diarrhoeal disease (from 2·5 to 1·4 million), lower respiratory infections (from 3·4 to 2·8 million), neonatal disorders (from 3·1 to 2·2 million), measles (from 0·63 to 0·13 million), and tetanus (from 0·27 to 0·06 million). Deaths from HIV/AIDS increased from 0·30 million in 1990 to 1·5 million in 2010, reaching a peak of 1·7 million in 2006. Malaria mortality also rose by an estimated 19·9% since 1990 to 1·17 million deaths in 2010. Tuberculosis killed 1·2 million people in 2010. Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by just under 8 million between 1990 and 2010, accounting for two of every three deaths (34·5 million) worldwide by 2010. 8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago; of these, 1·5 million (19%) were from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed 12·9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990; 1·3 million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990. The fraction of global deaths due to injuries (5·1 million deaths) was marginally higher in 2010 (9·6%) compared with two decades earlier (8·8%). This was driven by a 46% rise in deaths worldwide due to road traffic accidents (1·3 million in 2010) and a rise in deaths from falls. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of death in 2010. Ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, stroke, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) in 2010, similar to what was estimated for 1990, except for HIV/AIDS and preterm birth complications. YLLs from lower respiratory infections and diarrhoea decreased by 45–54% since 1990; ischaemic heart disease and stroke YLLs increased by 17–28%. Regional variations in leading causes of death were substantial. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes still accounted for 76% of premature mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. Age standardised death rates from some key disorders rose (HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease in particular), but for most diseases, death rates fell in the past two decades; including major vascular diseases, COPD, most forms of cancer, liver cirrhosis, and maternal disorders. For other conditions, notably malaria, prostate cancer, and injuries, little change was noted. Interpretation Population growth, increased average age of the world's population, and largely decreasing age-specific, sex-specific, and cause-specific death rates combine to drive a broad shift from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes towards non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes remain the dominant causes of YLLs in sub-Saharan Africa. Overlaid on this general pattern of the epidemiological transition, marked regional variation exists in many causes, such as interpersonal violence, suicide, liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, melanoma, and others. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of sound epidemiological assessments of the causes of death on a regular basis. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

10,602 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Stephen S Lim1, Theo Vos, Abraham D. Flaxman1, Goodarz Danaei2  +207 moreInstitutions (92)
Abstract: Methods We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent eff ects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. W e estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specifi c deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. Findings In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2–7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5–7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0–5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8–9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6–8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4–6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2–10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily aff ect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved water and sanitation and childhood micronutrient defi ciencies, fell in rank between 1990 and 2010, with unimproved water

8,301 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: ABI : ankle–brachial index ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation AGREE : Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation AHA : American Heart Association apoA1 : apolipoprotein A1 apoB : apolipoprotein B CABG : coronary artery bypass graft surgery CARDS : Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study CCNAP : Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions CHARISMA : Clopidogrel for High Athero-thrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilisation, Management, and Avoidance CHD : coronary heart disease CKD : chronic kidney disease COMMIT : Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial CRP : C-reactive protein CURE : Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events CVD : cardiovascular disease DALYs : disability-adjusted life years DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Trial ED : erectile dysfunction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate EHN : European Heart Network EPIC : European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EUROASPIRE : European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events GFR : glomerular filtration rate GOSPEL : Global Secondary Prevention Strategies to Limit Event Recurrence After MI GRADE : Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HDL : high-density lipoprotein HF-ACTION : Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment Study HPS : Heart Protection Study HR : hazard ratio hsCRP : high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HYVET : Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial ICD : International Classification of Diseases IMT : intima-media thickness INVEST : International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril JTF : Joint Task Force LDL : low-density lipoprotein Lp(a) : lipoprotein(a) LpPLA2 : lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy MATCH : Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High-risk Patients with Recent Transient Ischaemic Attack or Ischaemic Stroke MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MET : metabolic equivalent MONICA : Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease NICE : National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence NRT : nicotine replacement therapy NSTEMI : non-ST elevation myocardial infarction ONTARGET : Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial OSA : obstructive sleep apnoea PAD : peripheral artery disease PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PROactive : Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events PWV : pulse wave velocity QOF : Quality and Outcomes Framework RCT : randomized clinical trial RR : relative risk SBP : systolic blood pressure SCORE : Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project SEARCH : Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STEMI : ST-elevation myocardial infarction SU.FOL.OM3 : SUpplementation with FOlate, vitamin B6 and B12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids Syst-Eur : Systolic Hypertension in Europe TNT : Treating to New Targets UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use VITATOPS : VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke VLDL : very low-density lipoprotein WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Introduction Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a chronic disorder developing insidiously throughout life and usually progressing to an advanced stage by the time symptoms occur. It remains the major cause of premature death in Europe, even though CVD mortality has …

6,913 citations