scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Long‐term responses of zooplankton to invasion by a planktivorous fish in a subarctic watercourse

01 Jan 2009-Freshwater Biology (Wiley)-Vol. 54, Iss: 1, pp 24-34

TL;DR: Increased predation pressure following the vendace invasion induced many effects on the crustacean zooplankton, and this paper documents comprehensive and strong direct and indirect long-term impacts of an introduced non-native predator on the native prey community.
Abstract: Summary 1. Introduced or invading predators may have strong impacts on prey populations of the recipient community mediated by direct and indirect interactions. The long-term progression of predation effects, covering the invasion and establishment phase of alien predators, however, has rarely been documented. 2. This paper documents the impact of an invasive, specialized planktivorous fish on its prey in a subarctic watercourse. Potential predation effects on the crustacean plankton, at the community, population and individual levels, were explored in a long-term study following the invasion by vendace (Coregonus albula). 3. Over the 12-year period, the density and species richness of zooplankton decreased, smaller species became more abundant and Daphnia longispina, one of the largest cladocerans, was eliminated from the zooplankton community. 4. Within the dominant cladocerans, including Daphnia spp., Bosmina longispina and Bosmina longirostris, the body size of ovigerous females and the size at first reproduction decreased after the arrival of the new predator. The clutch sizes of Daphnia spp. and B. longirostris also increased. 5. Increased predation pressure following the vendace invasion induced many effects on the crustacean zooplankton, and we document comprehensive and strong direct and indirect long-term impacts of an introduced non-native predator on the native prey community.
Topics: Bosmina longirostris (60%), Predation (55%), Zooplankton (55%), Bosmina (54%), Daphnia (52%)

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

1
Long-term responses of zooplankton to invasion by a
planktivorous fish in a subarctic watercourse
Per-Arne Amundsen*, Anna Siwertsson*, Raul Primicerio* & Thomas hn*
§
* Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
§
Norwegian Institute of Gene Ecology, Breivika, Tromsø, Norway
Correspondence: Per-Arne Amundsen, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of
Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway.
E-mail: Per-Arne.Amundsen@nfh.uit.no
Keywords: invasion, zooplankton, planktivory, Daphnia, Bosmina, predation
Published in Freshwater Biology (2009) 54, 24–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-
2427.2008.02088.x

2
Summary
1. Introduced or invading predators may have strong impacts on prey populations of the
recipient community mediated by direct and indirect interactions. The long-term progression
of predation effects, covering the invasion and establishment phase of alien predators,
however, has rarely been documented.
2. This paper documents the impact of an invasive, specialised planktivorous fish on its prey
in a subarctic watercourse. Potential predation effects on the crustacean plankton, at the
community, population and individual levels, were explored in a long-term study following
the invasion by vendace (Coregonus albula).
3. Over the 12-yr period, the density and species richness of zooplankton decreased, smaller
species became more abundant, and Daphnia longispina, one of the largest cladocerans, was
eliminated from the zooplankton community.
4. Within the dominant cladocerans, including Daphnia spp., Bosmina longispina and
Bosmina longirostris, the body size of ovigerous females and the size at first reproduction
decreased after the arrival of the new predator. The clutch sizes of Daphnia spp. and B.
longirostris also increased.
5. Increased predation pressure following the vendace invasion induced many effects on the
crustacean zooplankton, and we document comprehensive and strong direct and indirect long-
term impacts of an introduced non-native predator on the native prey community.

3
INTRODUCTION
The introduction of alien species represents one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity
(Gido & Brown, 1999; Davis, 2003). Introduced predators may have a particularly strong
impact on recipient communities due to a high vulnerability of naïve prey to new predators
(Park, 2004). Prey naiveté is most common in freshwater ecosystems (Cox & Lima, 2006),
and isolated environments like lakes and islands are particularly sensitive to predator
introductions (Kaufman, 1992; Courchamp et al., 2003). In lakes, invasive predators may
even be able to drive native species to extinction (Zaret & Paine, 1973; Witte et al., 1992).
Classic examples of strong predatory impacts include lacustrine introductions of
planktivorous fish that have caused extinction of large-sized zooplankton species (Hrbáček et
al., 1961; Brooks & Dodson, 1965).
Most studies of predation effects on zooplankton are short-term comparisons of the prey
communities before and after predator introductions, or comparisons of similar systems with
and without the predator (Hrbáček et al., 1961; Brooks & Dodson, 1965; Hall et al., 1976;
DeMelo, France & McQueen, 1992). Such short-term surveys may lack the power to separate
weak trends from natural variations (Elliott, 1994). Furthermore, such snapshot studies can
not distinguish between direct and indirect effects of predator introductions, and do not
provide any information on the transitory dynamics between different prey community states.
Thus, based on short-term studies, it is not possible to conclude which mechanisms drive the
changes in the prey community or to quantify the rates of change, precluding in-depth
understanding and predictions. Long-term studies of predator impact on prey are necessary to
obtain information on relevant mechanisms and transient dynamics, but have rarely been
performed (Strayer et al., 2006). The present contribution relates to the introduction and

4
invasion of an alien fish species, the vendace Coregonus albula (Linnaeus, 1758), in a
subarctic watercourse, examining the long-term effects on the planktonic prey community
over a 12-yr period during the establishment of this specialised zooplanktivore.
Predation by planktivorous fish has large impacts on the dynamics and structure of
zooplankton communities (Zaret, 1980; Lazzaro, 1987; Gliwicz & Pijanowska, 1989). The
primary, direct effect is an increased mortality rate of the prey. However, predation is often
highly selective and most planktivorous fish are visual predators that select the largest visible
prey (O'Brien, 1987; Gliwicz & Pijanowska, 1989; Lampert & Sommer, 1997). Cladocerans
are often preferred prey since they have a conspicuous pattern of motion (Zaret, 1980) and are
easy to capture compared to copepods which have a more effective escape response (O'Brien,
1987; Lampert & Sommer, 1997). The egg clutches carried by gravid cladocerans may further
increase their vulnerability, and selection of ovigerous females and females carrying a large
number of eggs may strengthen the predation effects on prey density, composition and
demography (Gliwicz, 1981; Dawidowicz & Gliwicz, 1983).
In addition to the numerical, direct effects of predation, prey populations may be affected by
invasive predators via trait-mediated interactions (Bolker et al., 2003). Several cladoceran
species are able to adjust their life-history in response to increased predation risk detected via
chemical cues associated with digested prey (Stabell, Ogbebo & Primicerio, 2003; Pohnert,
Steinke & Tollrian, 2007). Cues associated with predation risk from fish are known to
anticipate the onset of reproduction in order to increase the chance of reproducing
successfully before being eaten (Taylor & Gabriel, 1992; Larsson & Dodson, 1993; Lass &
Spaak, 2003). Accordingly, in several cladoceran species a smaller size at first reproduction
has been demonstrated to occur with increasing predation pressure from fish (Stibor, 1992;

5
Vonder Brink & Vanni, 1993; Weber & Declerck, 1997). Clutch size has also been found to
increase when predation from fish intensifies (Dodson, 1989; Stibor, 1992; Vonder Brink &
Vanni, 1993). Hence, increased predation from planktivorous fish may result in a multitude of
effects, mediated by direct and indirect interactions, including a decrease in zooplankton
abundance (Gliwicz, 1981; Hamrin & Persson, 1986; Persson et al., 2004), changes in
community and population structure towards smaller species and smaller individuals within
the species (Brooks & Dodson, 1965; Hall, Cooper & Werner, 1970), life-history
modifications (Stibor, 1992; Weider & Pijanowska, 1993) and morphological adaptations
(Dodson, 1988, 1989; Kolar & Wahl, 1998).
Few studies have addressed the impacts of zooplanktivore fish in subarctic and arctic systems
and, to our knowledge, long-term studies of the impact of invasions in the subarctic are absent.
These systems are presently undergoing changes associated with climate warming that are
expected to favour the successful invasion of specialist planktivores (Primicerio et al., 2007).
It is therefore important to document and understand the long-term implications of such
invasions. In the subarctic Pasvik water system, northern Norway, the opportunity to study
long-term ecological responses during the establishment of an alien predator arose when
vendace invaded the watercourse in the late 1980’s (Amundsen et al., 1999). The vendace is a
highly specialised zooplanktivore (e.g., Svärdson, 1976; Hamrin, 1983; Bøhn & Amundsen,
1998) and established successfully as the dominant pelagic fish species during the 1990’s
(Amundsen et al., 1999; Bøhn et al., 2004). Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus, 1758))
dominated the native limnetic fish community, but has been displaced from the pelagic habitat
due to competitive interactions with vendace (Amundsen et al., 1999; Bøhn & Amundsen,
2001, Bøhn et al., 2008). The vendace thus represents a new and highly efficient predator of
the native crustacean plankton. The trends in the zooplankton community following the

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study provides an illustrative conspectus of the most recent literature reporting ecological impacts of non-native freshwater fishes from a wide range of species and geographic locations and concludes with a prospectus of needed areas of scientific inquiry.
Abstract: There is a long history of introduction of non-native fishes in fresh waters and the introduction rate has accelerated greatly over time. Although not all introduced fishes have appreciable effects on their new ecosystems, many exert significant ecological, evolutionary, and economic impacts. For researchers, managers, and policy makers interested in conserving freshwater diversity, understanding the magnitude and array of potential impacts of non-native fish species is of utmost importance. The present study provides an illustrative conspectus of the most recent literature reporting ecological impacts of non-native freshwater fishes from a wide range of species and geographic locations and concludes with a prospectus of needed areas of scientific inquiry. Both directly and indirectly, invasive fishes affect a wide range of native organisms from zooplankton to mammals across multiple levels of biological organizations ranging from the genome to the ecosystem. Although a great deal of knowledge ha...

358 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that zooplankton feeding leads to an eco-evolutionary feedback loop that may further shape the gill raker morphology since natural selection intensifies under resource competition for depleted prey communities.
Abstract: Gill raker divergence is a general pattern in adaptive radiations of postglacial fish, but few studies have addressed the adaptive significance of this morphological trait in foraging and eco-evolutionary interactions among predator and prey Here, a set of subarctic lakes along a diversifying gradient of coregonids was used as the natural setting to explore correlations between gill raker numbers and planktivory as well as the impact of coregonid radiation on zooplankton communities Results from 19 populations covering most of the total gill raker number gradient of the genus Coregonus, confirm that the number of gill rakers has a central role in determining the foraging ability towards zooplankton prey Both at the individual and population levels, gill raker number was correlated with pelagic niche use and the size of utilized zooplankton prey Furthermore, the average body size and the abundance and diversity of the zooplankton community decreased with the increasing diversity of coregonids We argue that zooplankton feeding leads to an eco-evolutionary feedback loop that may further shape the gill raker morphology since natural selection intensifies under resource competition for depleted prey communities Eco-evolutionary interactions may thus have a central role creating and maintaining the divergence of coregonid morphs in postglacial lakes

95 citations


Cites background from "Long‐term responses of zooplankton ..."

  • ...In this study, we found that zooplankton body size and density decreased with increasing coregonid diversity, a pattern commonly observed in zooplankton communities when the number of specialized planktivorous fish species increases (Nilsson and Pejler 1973; Post et al. 2008; Amundsen et al. 2009)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that subfossil Bosmina size structure is a promising indicator of historic changes in predation pressure in response to fish introductions/extirpations/population.
Abstract: Zooplankton are considered excellent indicators of aquatic food web structure, due to their role as grazers on primary producers and their sensitivity to predation by both planktivorous fish and invertebrates. Several key zooplankton taxa also leave identifiable remains that are often well-preserved in lake sediments, providing an opportunity to track changes in predation pressure over timescales of decades to thousands of years. For example, the small-bodied cladoceran zooplankter Bosmina (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) is often highly abundant in lake sediments, and because Bosmina often undergoes cyclomorphosis in response to fish and invertebrate predation, measurements of subfossil Bosmina features can be indicative of predation regime shifts. This review focuses on Bosmina cyclomorphic responses to varying predation regimes and the application of these principles to Bosmina subfossil remains to better understand long-term ecological changes occurring in lakes. We conclude that subfossil Bosmina size structure is a promising indicator of historic changes in predation pressure in response to fish introductions/extirpations/population

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Visually foraging planktivorous fish are prey of visual predators, and their foraging behaviour may be affected by light levels both in terms of gain and risk. The large seasonal change in day leng...

46 citations


Cites background from "Long‐term responses of zooplankton ..."

  • ...(Bøhn and Amundsen 1998; Amundsen et al. 2009)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Mar 2014-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: An apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace) in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of “speciation in reverse”.
Abstract: Invasion of exotic species has caused the loss of biodiversity and imparts evolutionary and ecological changes in the introduced systems. In northern Fennoscandia, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) is a highly polymorphic species displaying adaptive radiations into partially reproductively isolated and thus genetically differentiated sympatric morphs utilizing the planktivorous and benthivorous food niche in many lakes. In 1993, Lake Skrukkebukta was invaded by vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) which is a zooplanktivorous specialist. The vendace displaced the densely rakered whitefish from its preferred pelagic niche to the benthic habitat harbouring the large sparsely rakered whitefish. In this study, we investigate the potential influence of the vendace invasion on the breakdown of reproductive isolation between the two whitefish morphs. We inferred the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between the two morphs collected at the arrival (1993) and 15 years after (2008) the vendace invasion using 16 microsatellite loci and gill raker numbers, the most distinctive adaptive phenotypic trait between them. The comparison of gill raker number distributions revealed two modes growing closer over 15 years following the invasion. Bayesian analyses of genotypes revealed that the two genetically distinct whitefish morphs that existed in 1993 had collapsed into a single population in 2008. The decline in association between the gill raker numbers and admixture values over 15 years corroborates the findings from the Bayesian analysis. Our study thus suggests an apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years (≃ 3 generations) following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace) in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of “speciation in reverse”.

43 citations


Cites background from "Long‐term responses of zooplankton ..."

  • ...Long-term studies of fish and zooplankton following the vendace invasion have demonstrated a strong impact of the invader on the size-distribution and abundance of zooplankton [42], which in turn have resulted in a diet shift of the DR whitefish from zooplankton to zoobenthos combined with a competitive relegation from the pelagic to the littoral habitat [35,38,43]....

    [...]


References
More filters

MonographDOI
Abstract: Preface. 1. Introduction: Distributions and Inference for Categorical Data. 1.1 Categorical Response Data. 1.2 Distributions for Categorical Data. 1.3 Statistical Inference for Categorical Data. 1.4 Statistical Inference for Binomial Parameters. 1.5 Statistical Inference for Multinomial Parameters. Notes. Problems. 2. Describing Contingency Tables. 2.1 Probability Structure for Contingency Tables. 2.2 Comparing Two Proportions. 2.3 Partial Association in Stratified 2 x 2 Tables. 2.4 Extensions for I x J Tables. Notes. Problems. 3. Inference for Contingency Tables. 3.1 Confidence Intervals for Association Parameters. 3.2 Testing Independence in Two Way Contingency Tables. 3.3 Following Up Chi Squared Tests. 3.4 Two Way Tables with Ordered Classifications. 3.5 Small Sample Tests of Independence. 3.6 Small Sample Confidence Intervals for 2 x 2 Tables . 3.7 Extensions for Multiway Tables and Nontabulated Responses. Notes. Problems. 4. Introduction to Generalized Linear Models. 4.1 Generalized Linear Model. 4.2 Generalized Linear Models for Binary Data. 4.3 Generalized Linear Models for Counts. 4.4 Moments and Likelihood for Generalized Linear Models . 4.5 Inference for Generalized Linear Models. 4.6 Fitting Generalized Linear Models. 4.7 Quasi likelihood and Generalized Linear Models . 4.8 Generalized Additive Models . Notes. Problems. 5. Logistic Regression. 5.1 Interpreting Parameters in Logistic Regression. 5.2 Inference for Logistic Regression. 5.3 Logit Models with Categorical Predictors. 5.4 Multiple Logistic Regression. 5.5 Fitting Logistic Regression Models. Notes. Problems. 6. Building and Applying Logistic Regression Models. 6.1 Strategies in Model Selection. 6.2 Logistic Regression Diagnostics. 6.3 Inference About Conditional Associations in 2 x 2 x K Tables. 6.4 Using Models to Improve Inferential Power. 6.5 Sample Size and Power Considerations . 6.6 Probit and Complementary Log Log Models . 6.7 Conditional Logistic Regression and Exact Distributions . Notes. Problems. 7. Logit Models for Multinomial Responses. 7.1 Nominal Responses: Baseline Category Logit Models. 7.2 Ordinal Responses: Cumulative Logit Models. 7.3 Ordinal Responses: Cumulative Link Models. 7.4 Alternative Models for Ordinal Responses . 7.5 Testing Conditional Independence in I x J x K Tables . 7.6 Discrete Choice Multinomial Logit Models . Notes. Problems. 8. Loglinear Models for Contingency Tables. 8.1 Loglinear Models for Two Way Tables. 8.2 Loglinear Models for Independence and Interaction in Three Way Tables. 8.3 Inference for Loglinear Models. 8.4 Loglinear Models for Higher Dimensions. 8.5 The Loglinear Logit Model Connection. 8.6 Loglinear Model Fitting: Likelihood Equations and Asymptotic Distributions . 8.7 Loglinear Model Fitting: Iterative Methods and their Application . Notes. Problems. 9. Building and Extending Loglinear/Logit Models. 9.1 Association Graphs and Collapsibility. 9.2 Model Selection and Comparison. 9.3 Diagnostics for Checking Models. 9.4 Modeling Ordinal Associations. 9.5 Association Models . 9.6 Association Models, Correlation Models, and Correspondence Analysis . 9.7 Poisson Regression for Rates. 9.8 Empty Cells and Sparseness in Modeling Contingency Tables. Notes. Problems. 10. Models for Matched Pairs. 10.1 Comparing Dependent Proportions. 10.2 Conditional Logistic Regression for Binary Matched Pairs. 10.3 Marginal Models for Square Contingency Tables. 10.4 Symmetry, Quasi symmetry, and Quasiindependence. 10.5 Measuring Agreement Between Observers. 10.6 Bradley Terry Model for Paired Preferences. 10.7 Marginal Models and Quasi symmetry Models for Matched Sets . Notes. Problems. 11. Analyzing Repeated Categorical Response Data. 11.1 Comparing Marginal Distributions: Multiple Responses. 11.2 Marginal Modeling: Maximum Likelihood Approach. 11.3 Marginal Modeling: Generalized Estimating Equations Approach. 11.4 Quasi likelihood and Its GEE Multivariate Extension: Details . 11.5 Markov Chains: Transitional Modeling. Notes. Problems. 12. Random Effects: Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Categorical Responses. 12.1 Random Effects Modeling of Clustered Categorical Data. 12.2 Binary Responses: Logistic Normal Model. 12.3 Examples of Random Effects Models for Binary Data. 12.4 Random Effects Models for Multinomial Data. 12.5 Multivariate Random Effects Models for Binary Data. 12.6 GLMM Fitting, Inference, and Prediction. Notes. Problems. 13. Other Mixture Models for Categorical Data . 13.1 Latent Class Models. 13.2 Nonparametric Random Effects Models. 13.3 Beta Binomial Models. 13.4 Negative Binomial Regression. 13.5 Poisson Regression with Random Effects. Notes. Problems. 14. Asymptotic Theory for Parametric Models. 14.1 Delta Method. 14.2 Asymptotic Distributions of Estimators of Model Parameters and Cell Probabilities. 14.3 Asymptotic Distributions of Residuals and Goodnessof Fit Statistics. 14.4 Asymptotic Distributions for Logit/Loglinear Models. Notes. Problems. 15. Alternative Estimation Theory for Parametric Models. 15.1 Weighted Least Squares for Categorical Data. 15.2 Bayesian Inference for Categorical Data. 15.3 Other Methods of Estimation. Notes. Problems. 16. Historical Tour of Categorical Data Analysis . 16.1 Pearson Yule Association Controversy. 16.2 R. A. Fisher s Contributions. 16.3 Logistic Regression. 16.4 Multiway Contingency Tables and Loglinear Models. 16.5 Recent and Future? Developments. Appendix A. Using Computer Software to Analyze Categorical Data. A.1 Software for Categorical Data Analysis. A.2 Examples of SAS Code by Chapter. Appendix B. Chi Squared Distribution Values. References. Examples Index. Author Index. Subject Index. Sections marked with an asterisk are less important for an overview.

4,319 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

3,631 citations


"Long‐term responses of zooplankton ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The size at first reproduction was further estimated for these three taxa by logistic regression analyses in terms of the median effective level (EL50, see Agresti, 2002), which defines the smallest body size at which 50% 10 of the individuals are egg-bearing....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1965-Science
TL;DR: The effect of a marine planktivore on lake plankton illustrates theory of size, competition, and predation.
Abstract: ARTICLES Organic Fluorine Chemistry: C. G. Krespai.................................. Expanding rapidly, the science of these compounds has assumed both theoretical and practical importance. The Biological Synthesis of Cholesterol: K. Bloch .............................. Predation, Body Size, and Con-mposition of Plankton: J. L. Brooks and S. I. Dodson ... The effect of a marine planktivore on lake plankton illustrates theory of size, competition, and predation. 7

3,065 citations


"Long‐term responses of zooplankton ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...High predation pressure from fish generally results in a zooplankton community consisting of small species, whereas more competitive larger species tend to dominate in the absence of planktivorous fish (Brooks & Dodson, 1965; Hall et al., 1976; Gliwicz, 1990)....

    [...]

  • ...…1986; Persson et al., 2004), changes in community and population structure towards smaller species and smaller individuals within the species (Brooks & Dodson, 1965; Hall, Cooper & Werner, 1970), life-history modifications (Stibor, 1992; Weider & Pijanowska, 1993) and morphological…...

    [...]

  • ...…studies of predation effects on zooplankton are short-term comparisons of the prey communities before and after predator introductions, or comparisons of similar systems with and without the predator (Hrbáček et al., 1961; Brooks & Dodson, 1965; Hall et al., 1976; DeMelo, France & McQueen, 1992)....

    [...]

  • ...…are usually highly selected by planktivorous fish (Hamrin, 1983; Sandlund, Næsje & Kjellberg, 1987; Karjalainen & Viljanen, 1993), and extinction of large cladocerans after invasions of planktivorous fish has also been documented in earlier studies (Hrbáček et al., 1961; Brooks & Dodson, 1965)....

    [...]

  • ...Classic examples of strong predatory impacts include lacustrine introductions of planktivorous fish that have caused extinction of large-sized zooplankton species (Hrbáček et al., 1961; Brooks & Dodson, 1965)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between the energy expended per offspring, fitness of offspring, and parental fitness is presented in a two-dimensional graphical model and the validity of the model in determining an optimal parental strategy is demonstrated analytically.
Abstract: The relationship between the energy expended per offspring, fitness of offspring, and parental fitness is presented in a two-dimensional graphical model. The validity of the model in determining an optimal parental strategy is demonstrated analytically. The model applies under various conditions of parental care and sibling care for the offspring but is most useful for species that produce numerous small offspring which are given no parental care.

2,665 citations


"Long‐term responses of zooplankton ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The clutch size is influenced by an allocation trade-off between producing many small or a few large eggs (Smith & Fretwell, 1974; Dorazio & Lehman, 1983), and sizeselective predation by planktivorous fish is known also from other studies to induce the production of many small eggs in cladocerans…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
C. Drew Harvell1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Inducible defenses are responses activated through a previous encounter with a consumer or competitor that confer some degree of resistance to subsequent attacks. While the importance of inducible resistance has long been known in host-parasite interactions, it is only recently that its importance has emerged in other natural systems. Althought the structural defenses produced by invertebrates to their competitors and predators are by no means the same as an immune response triggered by parasites, these responses all share the properties of (1) specificity, (2) amplification and (3) memory. This review discusses the following ecological consequences and evolutionary causes of inducible defenses: (1) Inducible defenses render historical factors important in biological interactions and can affect the probability of individual survival and growth, as well as affect population dynamics of consumers in some circumstances. (2) Although the benefits of inducible defenses are often balanced by fitness costs, incl...

1,874 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
20215
20203
20192
20182
20172