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Journal ArticleDOI

Longitudinal Research on Crime and Delinquency

01 Jan 1979-Crime and Justice (University of Chicago Press)-Vol. 1, pp 289-348
TL;DR: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both as discussed by the authors, which are especially useful.
Abstract: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both. Studies which extend over a long period, which are prospective, and which include interviews with the subjects are especially useful. The longitudinal method has been used to investigate criminal careers, especially the incidence and prevalence of official delinquency at different ages, the peak age for convictions, the relationship between juvenile delinquency and adult crime, and offense specialization. It has also been used to predict the onset of convictions, recidivism, and the ending of criminal careers; to study the effects of penal treatments and other events such as marriage on delinquency; and to investigate the transmission of criminality from one generation to the next. Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods each have a part to play in research into crime and delinquency and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Major methodological questions...
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is general support for the hypothesis that children with poor peer adjustment are at risk for later life difficulties, and support is clearest for the outcomes of dropping out and criminality.
Abstract: In this review, we examine the oft-made claim that peer-relationship difficulties in childhood predict serious adjustment problems in later life. The article begins with a framework for conceptualizing and assessing children's peer difficulties and with a discussion of conceptual and methodological issues in longitudinal risk research. Following this, three indexes of problematic peer relationships (acceptance, aggressiveness, and shyness/withdrawal) are evaluated as predictors of three later outcomes (dropping out of school, criminality, and psychcpathology). The relation between peer difficulties and later maladjustment is examined in terms of both the consistency and strength of prediction. A review and analysis of the literature indicates general support for the hypothesis that children with poor peer adjustment are at risk for later life difficulties. Support is clearest for the outcomes of dropping out and criminality. It is also clearest for low acceptance and aggressiveness as predictors, whereas a link between shyness/withdrawal and later maladjustment has not yet been adequately tested. The article concludes with a critical discussion of the implicit models that have guided past research in this area and a set of recommendations for the next generation of research on the risk

3,055 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the sources and consequences of public disorder are assessed based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, and highly reliable scales of social and physical disorder for 196 neighborhoods are constructed.
Abstract: This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of social and physical disorder for 196 neighborhoods are constructed. Census data, police records, and an independent survey of more than 3,500 residents are then integrated to test a theory of collective efficacy and structural constraints. Defined as cohesion among residents combined with shared expectations for the social control of public space, collective efficacy explains lower rates of crime and observed disorder after controlling neighborhood structural characteristics. Collective efficacy is also linked to lower rates of violent crime after accounting for disorder and the reciprocal effects of violence. Contrary to the "broken windows" theory, however, the relationship between public disorder and crime is spurious except perhaps for robbery.

2,304 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the age distribution of crime is sufficiently invariant over a broad range of social conditions that these uses of the age distributions are not justified by available evidence.
Abstract: One of the few facts agreed on in criminology is the age distribution of crime. This fact has been used to criticize social theories of crime causation, to provide the foundation for other theories, to justify recent emphases on career criminals, and to support claims of superiority for longitudinal designs in criminological research. In the present paper, we argue that the age distribution of crime is sufficiently invariant over a broad range of social conditions that these uses of the age distribution are not justified by available evidence.

1,818 citations

01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a theory of antisocial behavior, the social development model, which organizes the results of research on risk and protec · tive factors for delinquency, crime, and substance abuse into hypQtheses regarding the development of prosocial and antisocial behaviour.
Abstract: This chapter presents a theory of antisocial behavior, the social development model, which organizes the results of research on risk and protec· tive factors for delinquency, crime, and substance abuse into hypQtheses regarding the development of antisocial and prosocial behavior. The social development model is grounded in tests of prior criminological theory. It hypothesizes similar general processes leading to prosocial and antisocial development, and specifies submodels for four specific periods during ch ildhood and adolescent development. Theoretical Considerations The social development model seeks to explain a broad range of distinct behaviors ranging from the use of illegal drugs to homicide. Crime, including violent and nonviolent offending and drug abuse, is viewed as a constellation of behaviors subject to the general principles incorporated in the model. .By considering evidence from research on the etiology .of both delinquency and drug abuse, it is possible to identify general constructs that predict both types of behavior and to use this knowledge in specifying predictive relationships in the development of antisocial behavior. ~ used here, the terms delinquency and drug use refer to behaviors. All behaviors are subject to influence from a variety of forces. The same principles, factors, or processes that influence one behavior should predict other behaviors. At the least, this suggests that a theory of antisocial behavior should be able to predict both drug use and criminal behavior, whether committed by children or adults. More ambitiously, it suggests a search for universal factors, mechanisms, or processes that predict all behavior. This implies a general theory. Gottfredson and Hirschi ( 1990), for example, have proposed "A General Theory of Crime," which attributes all criminal Preparation of this chapter was supported in part by grants from the National Insti· tute on Drug Abuse.

1,199 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose to see criminal behavior not as the result of psychologically and socially determined dispositions to offend, but as the outcome of the offender's broadly rational choices and decisions.
Abstract: Developments in a number of academic disciplines-the sociology of deviance, criminology, economics, psychology-suggest that it is useful to see criminal behavior not as the result of psychologically and socially determined dispositions to offend, but as the outcome of the offender's broadly rational choices and decisions. This perspective provides a basis for devising models of criminal behavior that (1) offer frameworks within which to locate existing research, (2) suggest directions for new research, (3) facilitate analysis of existing policy, and (4) help to identify potentially fruitful policy initiatives. Such models need not offer comprehensive explanations; they may be limited and incomplete, yet still be "good enough" to achieve these important policy and research purposes. To meet this criterion they need to be specific to particular forms of crime, and they need separately to describe both the processes of involvement in crime and the decisions surrounding the commission of the offense itself. D...

824 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1963
TL;DR: A survey drawn from social science research which deals with correlational, ex post facto, true experimental, and quasi-experimental designs and makes methodological recommendations is presented in this article.
Abstract: A survey drawn from social-science research which deals with correlational, ex post facto, true experimental, and quasi-experimental designs and makes methodological recommendations. Bibliogs.

10,916 citations

Book
01 Jan 1950
TL;DR: This is the sort of American book which makes British social scientists writhe with envy as discussed by the authors, and it is the record of a sustained and elaborate criminological research project, lasting ten years and costing three-quarters of a million dollars.
Abstract: This is the sort of American book which makes British social scientists writhe with envy. It is the record of a sustained and elaborate criminological research project, lasting ten years and costing three-quarters of a million dollars. As might be expected, this is therefore as good a book of its type as is likely to be written. However, it adheres to the orthodox methodology for the study of crime, and there is every reason for feeling that this is no longer adequate.

1,680 citations