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Looking Behind the Veil of an Idealized Past: The Useful Legacy of a False Prophet

01 Jan 2006-
About: The article was published on 2006-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 5 citations till now.

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Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: God's Rule: Government and Islam, by Patricia Crone as discussed by the authors is a history of the tension existing between religion and politics during the formative period of Islamic civilization (7'h to 13th centuries C.E.).
Abstract: God's Rule: Government and Islam, by Patricia Crone. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. x + 400 pages. Charts to p. 413. Bibl. to p. 446. Index and gloss, to p. 462. $39.50. For many Muslim believers, it is an article of faith that religion and politics are fused. Patricia Crone accepts this doctrine and begins her new book by firmly grounding Islam in a Middle Eastern tradition of religious and political unity. The two examples she uses as evidence are the Sumerian city-states with their priest-rulers and "the federation of Israelites that Moses took out of Egypt for the conquest of Palestine" (p. 15). These examples are perhaps not the best choices since archaeologists have discovered military strongmen as well as priests among the earliest rulers in Sumeria. They also tell us of early popular assemblies (pukhrum), indicating that Iraq (!) and not Greece was the place displaying the earliest traces of participatory politics.1 As for the Israelites, many archaeologists are skeptical of the historicity of the Exodus and are inclined to regard the ancient Israelites as villagers of long standing in the Palestinian hills.2 In the case of Islamic origins as well, the scholarship of the past quarter century - in which Dr. Crone occupies a prominent position has cast doubts on the historicity of early 7lh-century events in Arabia as told by the 9lh-century religious scholars. While Islamic theology and law may posit a unity of religion and politics, historical research demonstrates their distinctiveness - more often in tension than in harmony. Apart from the initial fusion argument, the book is a masterpiece on the history of the tension existing between religion and politics during the formative period of Islamic civilization (7'h to 13th centuries C.E.). It begins with a discussion of the Umayyad caliphs, governors, and judges who ruled the expanding Islamic Empire in the early 70Os by religious as well as political decree. From the start, however, these rulers had to deal with critics, such as the Kharijis, Jama'i Muslims, and Shi'is, who advocated rival models of religio-political organization under either weaker or stronger caliphs. Crone coins the felicitous term jama'i (p. 28) to describe those early "communitarian" (later Sunni) Muslims who were critical of Umayyad religious functions but did not seek to overturn Umayyad rule. While admittedly the Kharijis and Shi'is espoused religio-political fusion, the very fact of their active hostility shows the unavoidable tensions between religion and politics in the historical process. Crone convincingly argues that Shi'ism in the mid-700s was still more generally Hashimite (family of the Prophet) than 'Alid (family of the Prophet's cousin 'AH) in orientation. Consequently, the 'Abbasid revolution of 750 appears as a victory for the Shi'i model of a strong caliphate, especially in religious matters. …

56 citations

Book
01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: One day, you will discover a new adventure and knowledge by spending more money as mentioned in this paper. But when? Do you think that you need to obtain those all requirements when having much money? Why don't you try to get something simple at first?
Abstract: One day, you will discover a new adventure and knowledge by spending more money. But when? Do you think that you need to obtain those all requirements when having much money? Why don't you try to get something simple at first? That's something that will lead you to know more about the world, adventure, some places, history, entertainment, and more? It is your own time to continue reading habit. One of the books you can enjoy now is the history al tabari general introduction and from the creation to the flood here.
References
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Book
27 Oct 1983
TL;DR: An Introduction to Islamic Law as discussed by the authors presents a broad account of our present knowledge of the history and outlines of the system of Islamic law, and is not intended in the first place for specialists, although it is hoped that it will attract study to this particularly rewarding branch of Islamic studies.
Abstract: An Introduction to Islamic Law presents a broad account of our present knowledge of the history and outlines of the system of Islamic law. It is not intended in the first place for specialists, although it is hoped that it will attract study to this particularly rewarding branch of Islamic studies, but for students and interested general readers. Islamic law is the key to understanding the essence of one of the great world religions, it still casts its spell over the laws of contemporary Islamic states, and it is in itself a remarkable manifestation of legal thought.

676 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Muqaddimah, often translated as "Introduction" or "Prolegomenon" is the most important Islamic history of the premodern world as discussed by the authors, and the first complete English translation, by the eminent Islamicist and interpreter of Arabic literature Franz Rosenthal, was published in three volumes in 1958 as part of the Bollingen Series.
Abstract: The Muqaddimah, often translated as "Introduction" or "Prolegomenon," is the most important Islamic history of the premodern world. Written by the great fourteenth-century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406), this monumental work laid down the foundations of several fields of knowledge, including philosophy of history, sociology, ethnography, and economics. The first complete English translation, by the eminent Islamicist and interpreter of Arabic literature Franz Rosenthal, was published in three volumes in 1958 as part of the Bollingen Series and received immediate acclaim in America and abroad. A one-volume abridged version of Rosenthal's masterful translation was first published in 1969. This new edition of the abridged version, with the addition of a key section of Rosenthal's own introduction to the three-volume edition, and with a new introduction by Bruce B. Lawrence, will reintroduce this seminal work to twenty-first-century students and scholars of Islam and of medieval and ancient history.

464 citations

Book
01 Dec 1950
TL;DR: The origins of Muhammadan jurisprudenc, the origins of the prophet, The origins of Islam, and the prophet of Islam as discussed by the authors, and the Prophet of Islam.
Abstract: The origins of Muhammadan jurisprudenc , The origins of Muhammadan jurisprudenc , کتابخانه مرکزی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران

301 citations

Book
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: The main argument of as discussed by the authors is that the conventional opinion of the rise of Islam is based on classical accounts of the trade between south Arabia and the Mediterranean some 600 years earlier than the time of Muhammed.
Abstract: The main argument of this book is that the conventional opinion of the rise of Islam is based on classical accounts of the trade between south Arabia and the Mediterranean some 600 years earlier than the time of Muhammed. The author draws on literary, epigraphical and archaeological evidence from Classical and Islamic sources to argue that the Meccans were never the commercial tycoons that current theory suggests, nor was Mecca ever an important trade centre. Moreover, she rejects the claims that Mecca was a religious sanctuary and a centre of Arabian pilgrimage. Following this, she seeks to clarify the nature of the sources on which an explanation of the birth of the new religion in Arabia in her view should be based.

256 citations

Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the evolution of the Sufyanid pattern, 661-84 [41-64] 4. Syria of 684 [64] 5. The Marwanid evolution, 684-744 [64-126] 6. Umayyad clientage, 744 [126] 8. Failure of the Islamic Empire: 9. The abortive service aristocracy 10. The emergence of the slave soldiers 11.
Abstract: Preface A note on conventions Part I. Introduction: 1. Historiographical introduction 2. The nature of the Arab conquest Part II. The Evolution of the Conquest Society: 3. The Sufyanid pattern, 661-84 [41-64] 4. Syria of 684 [64] 5. The Marwanid evolution, 684-744 [64-126] 6. The Marwanid faction 7. Syria of 744 [126] 8. Umayyad clientage Part III. The Failure of the Islamic Empire: 9. The abortive service aristocracy 10. The emergence of the slave soldiers 11. The emergence of the medieval polity Appendices Notes Bibliography General index Prosopographical index.

225 citations