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Journal ArticleDOI

Looking for America: The Disassociation of Urban Youth

31 Mar 2006-The Educational Forum (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 70, Iss: 1, pp 10-20

AbstractMany educational initiatives have been and continue to be based on a macro-social system understanding of communal roles, values, norms, interactions, perceptions, and realities. This practice neglects the unique impediments and social norms that exist within the myriad of micro-social systems in the United States. This work draws attention to the disassociation of America's inner-city youth through an analysis of educational initiatives and macro-social system beliefs that have prescribed a macro-social system remedy for micro-social system ailments.

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Citations
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Dissertation
01 Jan 2014
Abstract: A policy analysis of key employability interventions for the educationally disadvantaged in further education: Comparative insights for Irish education Author(s) Boyle, James Patrick Publication date 2014 Original citation Boyle, J. P. 2014. A policy analysis of key employability interventions for the educationally disadvantaged in further education: Comparative insights for Irish education. PhD Thesis, University College Cork. Type of publication Doctoral thesis Rights © 2014, James P. Boyle http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

7 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2014
Abstract: A disproportionately high number of students who live in urban centers are found eligible for special education services. For some of these students, teachers and administrators may misinterpret communication and other behaviors. This chapter will provide ideas generated from the literature and lessons learned about interpreting communication and behavior in the urban context. Although the primary focus is face-to-face communication, the authors also discuss ways to integrate technology to support the communication process. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-878-1.ch003

2 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The effects of neighborhood characteristics on the development of children and adolescents are estimated, using two data sets, each of which contains information gathered about individual children and the families and neighborhoods in which they reside. There are reasonably powerful neighborhood effects-particularly effects of the presence of affluent neighbors-on Childhood IQ, teenage births, and school-leaving, even after the differences in the socioeconomic characteristics of families are adjusted for. The study finds that white teenagers benefit more from the presence of affluent neighbors than do black teenagers.

1,642 citations


"Looking for America: The Disassocia..." refers background in this paper

  • ...More recent work analyzed community and neighborhood characteristics and their influences on adolescents (Bernard 1987; Brooks-Gunn et al. 1993) and the influence of economic factors (Chase-Lansdale and Gordon 1996; Kohfeld and Sprague 1988)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Associations between children's social competence with peers and differential aspects of their teacher-child relationships were examined in a longitudinal sample of 48 4-year-old children enrolled in child care as infants.
Abstract: Associations between children's social competence with peers and differential aspects of their teacher-child relationships were examined in a longitudinal sample of 48 4-year-old children enrolled in child care as infants. Toddler security with teacher was negatively associated with hostile aggression and positively with complex peer play and gregarious behaviors. Prosocial behaviors and withdrawing behaviors were associated with preschool security with teacher. Dependence on teachers as a preschooler was associated with social withdrawal and hostile aggression. Positive toddler teacher socialization was associated with higher perceived peer acceptance. Preschool teacher negative socialization was negatively associated with complex peer play, teacher ratings of hesitancy, friendly enactment, and accidental attribution and positively related to teacher ratings of difficulty.

367 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Criminologists have long recognized the importance offamily and peers in the etiology of delinquency, but these two influences are commonly analyzed in isolation. However, if peers are treated as potential instigators of delinquency (following differential association theory) and parents as potential barriers to delinquency (following control theory), a crucial question emerges: Is parental influence capable of counteracting the influence of delinquent peers? Analysis of datafrom the National Youth Survey reveals that the amount of time spent with family is indeed capable of reducing and even eliminating peer influence. By contrast, attachment to parents (the affective relation between parents and offspring) apparently has no such effect. Instead, it appears to affect delinquency indirectly by inhibiting the initialformation of delinquentfriendships. Adolescents in the U.S. live their daily lives in two social worlds with two different masters. At school and in certain activities outside of school, they observe and participate in the culture of their peers, a culture with its own rules of dress, music, speech, and behavior, and an emphasis on popularity, physical attractiveness, and athletic success (Coleman 1961; Conger & Petersen 1984). From this culture they move regularly to the environment of home and family, which may complement or clash with that of school and peers. The transition between these two worlds is abrupt and frequent, typically occurring more than once each day. Criminologists have long recognized the importance of family and peers in the etiology of delinquency, but these two social influences are commonly analyzed in isolation. Proponents of differential association, for example, conventionally point to peer influences while discounting or ignoring the family, whereas control theorists and others concerned with the family do precisely the

344 citations


"Looking for America: The Disassocia..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The Educational Forum • Volume 70 • Fall 2005 • 17 Legislators, policy implementers, and educators must understand that a youth’s cognitive process is influenced powerfully by his or her association with delinquent peers or deviant peer groups (Warr 1993)....

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  • ...The Educational Forum • Volume 70 • Fall 2005 • 17 Legislators, policy implementers, and educators must understand that a youth’s cognitive process is influenced powerfully by his or her association with delinquent peers or deviant peer groups (Warr 1993)....

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  • ...Warr (1993) found that most deviant behavior oc- curred on the weekends and in other situations where youths had access to unstructured, free time....

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  • ...Children live in two worlds: one that consists of their chosen peer group with its unique culture, values, and norms, and another that consists of their family “which may complement or clash with that of school and peers” (Warr 1993, 247)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Families and schools are two primary sources of social capital in the early life course. This study examines the degree to which these different contexts overlap to shape adolescent development. Multilevel modeling on nationally representative data (n = 11,927) revealed that emotionally distant relationships with parents were associated with declining academic achievement over 2 years of secondary schooling and that various aspects of the social environments of schools were associated with increasing academic achievement during this same period. Additionally, adolescents who had more social capital at home often benefited more from social capital at school. Key Words: adolescence, ecology, parenting, schooling, social capital. The ecology of human development is a complex web of personal relationships, social settings, and institutions that influence developmental trajectories independently and interactively. In the early life course, families and schools represent arguably the two primary ecological contexts (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). As such, both have been major foci of developmental research, but such research has tended to view them in isolation from each other. Recognizing and exploring the overlap between the two, however, is a necessary step in advancing knowledge about the developmental significance of each of these contexts and the intricate nature of the larger ecology. This study takes this step by investigating how the academic functioning of young people is related to their family and school environments and to the intersection of the two. The theoretical motivation for this research is drawn from the ecological perspective (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998) and the concept of social capital (Coleman, 1988). The first argues that development is shaped by microcontexts, such as families and schools, but also by the mesolevel interactions between them. The second refers to the resources that can be accessed through social relations. Bringing the two together, developmental research in family studies and education can benefit from examining the transmission of social capital in families and schools and how these different conduits of social capital can reinforce or counterbalance each other. Thus, this study examines families' lack of social capital in terms of weak affective bonds between parents and adolescents; the presence of social capital in schools in terms of the interpersonal and normative climate of the student body; and the role of the mesolevel ecological interaction between the two in adolescent academic achievement. The significance of this study is both conceptual and methodological. First, it better captures the essence of ecology by viewing major settings as intertwined rather than isolated from each other (Call & Mortimer, 2001). This approach can be adapted to other stages of the life course (e.g., the intersection of work and family in adulthood), thereby benefiting research on human development more generally. Second, unlike other family-focused studies that have introduced the school, this study examines the characteristics of the school itself rather than aspects of the child's functioning in school (Crosnoe, Erickson, & Dornbusch, 2002). Third, it draws parallels between families and schools by conceptualizing the school as an interpersonal environment rather than simply an educational institution (McNeal, 1997). Fourth, it draws on nationally representative data and multilevel modeling techniques well suited to these tasks. FAMILY-BASED SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT The concept of social capital has been applied rather loosely in contemporary research, but it essentially refers to the resources that flow through relationship ties. Such ties can be viewed on the microlevel, in terms of personal relationships, or the macrolevel, in terms of social networks or institutions. Information, norms, and support are three general types of resources that can flow through these ties to enhance individual functioning (Bourdieu, 1987; Coleman, 1988; Sampson, Morenoff, & Earls, 1999). …

285 citations


"Looking for America: The Disassocia..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Educational legislation, such as the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), centers around callous, rigid rules that retain students who aren’t on grade level in select academic subjects and rate schools with high numbers of English language learners or economically disadvantaged students using the same criteria for judging suburban, affluent schools and students—namely standardized tests that reflect the social capital of the macro-social system (Campbell 2003; Crosnoe 2004)....

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  • ...…and rate schools with high numbers of English language learners or economically disadvantaged students using the same criteria for judging suburban, affluent schools and students—namely standardized tests that reflect the social capital of the macro-social system (Campbell 2003; Crosnoe 2004)....

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  • ...Educators must educate to move traditionally disassociated groups forward in the social continuum, regardless of social constraints, lack of resources, student misalignment of mainstream social capital (Crosnoe 2004), and the challenging conditions faced by inner-city, urban schools....

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Journal ArticleDOI

252 citations


"Looking for America: The Disassocia..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The six-class social model presented by Warner (1960), however, is the most appropriate starting point in understanding the social disassociation of urban, inner-city youth from macro-mainstream society....

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