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Journal ArticleDOI

Loss of mandibular lymph node integrity is associated with an increase in sensitivity to HSV-1 infection in CD118-deficient mice.

15 Mar 2009-Journal of Immunology (NIH Public Access)-Vol. 182, Iss: 6, pp 3678-3687

TL;DR: The adoptive transfer of HSV-specific TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells into CD118−/− mice at the time of infection modestly reduced viral titers in the nervous system suggesting in addition to the generation of HSv-specific CD8 + T cells, other type I IFN-activated pathways are instrumental in controlling acute infection.

AbstractType I IFNs are potent antiviral cytokines that contribute to the development of the adaptive immune response. To determine the role of type I IFNs in this process in an infectious disease model, mice deficient in the type I IFN receptor (CD118(-/-)) were ocularly infected with HSV-1 and surveyed at times post infection in the nervous system and lymph node for virus and the host immune response. Virus titers were elevated in the trigeminal ganglia and brain stem with virus disseminating rapidly to the draining lymph node of CD118(-/-) mice. T cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell infiltration into the brain stem was reduced in CD118(-/-) mice following infection, which correlated with a reduction in CXCL10 but not CXCL9 expression. In contrast, CXCL1 and CCL2 levels were up-regulated in the brainstem of CD118(-/-) mice associated with an increase in F4/80(+) macrophages. By day 5 post infection, there was a significant loss in T, NK, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell numbers in the draining lymph nodes associated with an increase in apoptotic/necrotic T cells and an appreciable lack of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells. The adoptive transfer of HSV-specific TCR transgenic CD8(+) T cells into CD118(-/-) mice at the time of infection modestly reduced viral titers in the nervous system suggesting in addition to the generation of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, other type I IFN-activated pathways are instrumental in controlling acute infection.

Topics: T cell (61%), Plasmacytoid dendritic cell (58%), CD8 (58%), Immune system (57%), Lymph node (57%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A greater understanding of the contribution of resident glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes within the CNS in response to HSV-1 invasion is necessary to identify candidate molecules as targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce unwarranted inflammation coinciding with the maintenance of the anti-viral state.
Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can induce a robust immune response initially thru the activation of pattern recognition receptors and subsequent type I interferon production that then shapes, along with other innate immune components, the adaptive immune response to the insult. While this response is necessary to quell virus replication, drive the pathogen into a "latent" state, and likely hinder viral reactivation, collateral damage can ensue with demonstrable cell death and foci of tissue pathology in the central nervous system (CNS) as a result of the release of inflammatory mediators including reactive oxygen species. Although rare, HSV-1 is the leading cause of frank sporadic encephalitis that, if left untreated, can result in death. A greater understanding of the contribution of resident glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes within the CNS in response to HSV-1 invasion is necessary to identify candidate molecules as targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce unwarranted inflammation coinciding with the maintenance of the anti-viral state.

115 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported that TLR signaling is expendable in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 containment as depicted by plaque assays of knockout mice resembling wild-type controls, and an IRF-3-dependent, IRF7- and TLR-independent innate sensor responsible for HSV containment at the site of acute infection is identified.
Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate sentinels required for clearance of bacterial and fungal infections of the cornea, but their role in viral immunity is currently unknown. We report that TLR signaling is expendable in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 containment as depicted by plaque assays of knockout mice (MyD88−/−, Trif−/− and MyD88−/− Trif−/− double knockout) resembling wild-type controls. To identify the key sentinel in viral recognition of the cornea, in vivo knockdown of the DNA sensor IFI-16/p204 in the corneal epithelium was performed and resulted in a loss of IFN-regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) nuclear translocation, interferon-α production, and viral containment. The sensor seems to have a similar function in other HSV clinically relevant sites such as the vaginal mucosa in which a loss of p204/IFI-16 results in significantly more HSV-2 shedding. Thus, we have identified an IRF-3-dependent, IRF-7- and TLR-independent innate sensor responsible for HSV containment at the site of acute infection.

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review illustrates examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed, and highlights the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections.
Abstract: Neurotropic viruses can cause devastating central nervous system (CNS) infections, especially in young children and the elderly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have been described as relevant sites of entry for specific viruses as well as for leukocytes, which are recruited during the proinflammatory response in the course of CNS infection. In this review, we illustrate examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed. Furthermore, we highlight the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections. We discuss in detail the link between specific cytokines and chemokines and leukocyte migration profiles. The thorough understanding of the complex and interrelated inflammatory mechanisms as well as identifying universal mediators promoting CNS inflammation is essential for the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies.

72 citations


Cites background from "Loss of mandibular lymph node integ..."

  • ...In contrast, an increase in macrophages within the CNS of IFNAR-A1 deficient mice has been observed [138]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: CCL2 expression driven by IFI-16 recognition of HSV-1 facilitates the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes into the cornea proper to control viral replication.
Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is the leading cause of corneal blindness in the developed world due to reactivation of infectious virus and the subsequent immune response. The innate response that facilitates viral control in the cornea is currently unknown. In the present study using a mouse chimera model, we found that a bone marrow component is crucial in inhibiting viral replication and identified inflammatory monocytes (F4/80+ Gr1+) as the responsible cell. CCL2 was critical for recruiting inflammatory monocytes, and a loss of this chemokine in CCL2−/− mice resulted in a loss of viral containment and inflammatory monocyte recruitment. To confirm these results, clodronate depletion of inflammatory monocytes resulted in elevated viral titers. Furthermore, siRNA targeting the innate sensor p204/IFI-16 resulted in a loss of CCL2 production. In conclusion, CCL2 expression driven by IFI-16 recognition of HSV-1 facilitates the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes into the cornea proper to control viral replication.

69 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using magnetic resonance imaging and type I IFN receptor–deficient mouse chimeras, it is demonstrated HSV-1 gains access to the murine brain stem and subsequently brain ependymal cells, leading to enlargement of the cerebral lateral ventricle and infection of the brain parenchyma in mice.
Abstract: HSV-1 is the leading cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, with mortality rates approaching 30% despite treatment with the antiviral drug of choice, acyclovir. Permanent neurologic deficits are common in patients that survive, but the mechanism leading to this pathology is poorly understood, impeding clinical advancements in treatment to reduce CNS morbidity. Using magnetic resonance imaging and type I IFN receptor-deficient mouse chimeras, we demonstrate HSV-1 gains access to the murine brain stem and subsequently brain ependymal cells, leading to enlargement of the cerebral lateral ventricle and infection of the brain parenchyma. A similar enlargement in the lateral ventricles is found in a subpopulation of herpes simplex encephalitic patients. Associated with encephalitis is an increase in CXCL1 and CXCL10 levels in the cerebral spinal fluid, TNF-α expression in the ependymal region, and the influx of neutrophils of encephalitic mouse brains. Reduction in lateral ventricle enlargement using anti-secretory factor peptide 16 reduces mortality significantly in HSV-1-infected mice without any effect on expression of inflammatory mediators, infiltration of leukocytes, or changes in viral titer. Microglial cells but not infiltrating leukocytes or other resident glial cells or neurons are the principal source of resistance in the CNS during the first 5 d postinfection through a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β-dependent, type I IFN pathway. Our results implicate lateral ventricle enlargement as a major cause of mortality in mice and speculate such an event transpires in a subpopulation of human HSV encephalitic patients.

60 citations


Cites background from "Loss of mandibular lymph node integ..."

  • ...However, analysis of brain cortex and ependyma for cytokine and chemokine (TNF-a and CXCL10) expression by suspension array or leukocyte infiltrate (including neutrophils, macrophages, inflammatory monocytes, and NK cells) by flow cytometry revealed no significant difference in levels or cell numbers comparing peptide- to vehicle-treated mice day 7 to 8 p.i. (data not shown)....

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  • ...We speculate CXCL10 may serve as an easily accessible predictor of inflammation severity in patients with no previous history of neuroinflammatory disease....

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  • ...Likewise, HSE WT mice had detectable levels of IL-1a, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL9, and CXCL10, with CXCL1 and CXCL10 expression significantly above that recovered in the CSF of non-HSE WT mice day 8 p.i. (Fig....

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  • ...Associated with encephalitis is an increase in CXCL1 and CXCL10 levels in the cerebral spinal fluid, TNF-a expression in the ependymal region, and the influx of neutrophils of encephalitic mouse brains....

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  • ...for CD118 mice) or the relationship between a functional type I IFN pathway and HSV-1–induced CXCL10 (34)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
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Journal ArticleDOI
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1,509 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
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