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Journal ArticleDOI

Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging

01 Dec 2014-Vol. 6, Iss: 11, pp 931-943

TL;DR: Data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence, and support the strong link between the NF-(B pathway and mammalian aging.

AbstractNF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

Topics: Cell aging (56%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed that controlling senescence-associated inflammation by targeting specific inflammatory mediators may have a beneficial therapeutic effect in treatment of cancer and aging-related diseases.
Abstract: Senescent cells, albeit not proliferating, are metabolically and transcriptionally active, thereby capable of affecting their microenvironment, notably via the production of inflammatory mediators. These mediators maintain and propagate the senescence process to neighboring cells, and then recruit immune cells for clearing senescent cells. Among the inflammatory cues are molecules with pronounced tumor-controlling properties, both growth and invasion factors and inhibitory factors, working directly or via recruited immune cells. These senescence–inflammatory effects also prevail within tumors, mediated by the senescent tumor cells and the senescent tumor stroma. Here, we review the course and impact of senescence-associated inflammatory responses in aging and cancer. We propose that controlling senescence-associated inflammation by targeting specific inflammatory mediators may have a beneficial therapeutic effect in treatment of cancer and aging-related diseases.

215 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CVID phenotype in these families is caused by NF-κB1 p50 haploinsufficiency, with a Dutch-Australian CVID-affected family identified a NFKB1 heterozygous splice-donor-site mutation, causing in-frame skipping of exon 8.
Abstract: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), characterized by recurrent infections, is the most prevalent symptomatic antibody deficiency. In ∼90% of CVID-affected individuals, no genetic cause of the disease has been identified. In a Dutch-Australian CVID-affected family, we identified a NFKB1 heterozygous splice-donor-site mutation (c.730+4A>G), causing in-frame skipping of exon 8. NFKB1 encodes the transcription-factor precursor p105, which is processed to p50 (canonical NF-κB pathway). The altered protein bearing an internal deletion (p.Asp191_Lys244delinsGlu; p105ΔEx8) is degraded, but is not processed to p50ΔEx8. Altered NF-κB1 proteins were also undetectable in a German CVID-affected family with a heterozygous in-frame exon 9 skipping mutation (c.835+2T>G) and in a CVID-affected family from New Zealand with a heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.465dupA) in exon 7. Given that residual p105 and p50—translated from the non-mutated alleles—were normal, and altered p50 proteins were absent, we conclude that the CVID phenotype in these families is caused by NF-κB1 p50 haploinsufficiency.

154 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The more that can be understood about the interplay between SCs and the immune system, the faster new interventions may be developed to delay, prevent, or treat age-related dysfunction and the multiple senescence-associated chronic diseases and disorders.
Abstract: Senescent cells (SCs) arise from normal cells in multiple organs due to inflammatory, metabolic, DNA damage, or tissue damage signals. SCs are non-proliferating but metabolically active cells that can secrete a range of pro-inflammatory and proteolytic factors as part of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent cell anti-apoptotic pathways (SCAPs) protect SCs from their own pro-apoptotic SASP. SCs can chemo-attract immune cells and are usually cleared by these immune cells. During aging and in multiple chronic diseases, SCs can accumulate in dysfunctional tissues. SCs can impede innate and adaptive immune responses. Whether immune system loss of capacity to clear SCs promotes immune system dysfunction, or conversely whether immune dysfunction permits SC accumulation, are important issues that are not yet fully resolved. SCs may be able to assume distinct states that interact differentially with immune cells, thereby promoting or inhibiting SC clearance, establishing a chronically pro-senescent and pro-inflammatory environment, leading to modulation of the SASP by the immune cells recruited and activated by the SASP. Therapies that enhance immune cell-mediated clearance of SCs could provide a lever for reducing SC burden. Such therapies could include vaccines, small molecule immunomodulators, or other approaches. Senolytics, drugs that selectively eliminate SCs by transiently disabling their SCAPs, may prove to alleviate immune dysfunction in older individuals and thereby accelerate immune-mediated clearance of SCs. The more that can be understood about the interplay between SCs and the immune system, the faster new interventions may be developed to delay, prevent, or treat age-related dysfunction and the multiple senescence-associated chronic diseases and disorders.

118 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent results reveal that the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B‐cells 1 (NFKB1) (p105/p50) subunit is an important regulator of NF‐κB activity in vivo, potentially revealing new strategies for targeting this pathway in inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Abstract: The pleiotropic consequences of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) pathway activation result from the combinatorial effects of the five subunits that form the homo- and heterodimeric NF-κB complexes. Although biochemical and gene knockout studies have demonstrated overlapping and distinct functions for these proteins, much is still not known about the mechanisms determining context-dependent functions, the formation of different dimer complexes and transcriptional control in response to diverse stimuli. Here we discuss recent results that reveal that the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1) (p105/p50) subunit is an important regulator of NF-κB activity in vivo. These effects are not restricted to being a dimer partner for other NF-κB subunits. Rather p50 homodimers have a critical role as suppressors of the NF-κB response, while the p105 precursor has a variety of NF-κB-independent functions. The importance of Nfkb1 function can be seen in mouse models, where Nfkb1(-/-) mice display increased inflammation and susceptibility to certain forms of DNA damage, leading to cancer, and a rapid ageing phenotype. In humans, low expression of Kip1 ubiquitination-promoting complex 1 (KPC1), a ubiquitin ligase required for p105 to p50 processing, was shown to correlate with a reduction in p50 and glioblastoma incidence. Therefore, while the majority of research in this field has focused on the upstream signalling pathways leading to NF-κB activation or the function of other NF-κB subunits, such as RelA (p65), these data demonstrate a critical role for NFKB1, potentially revealing new strategies for targeting this pathway in inflammatory diseases and cancer.

115 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Understanding the causes and consequences of cellular senescence has provided novel insights into how cells react to stress, especially genotoxic stress, and how this cellular response can affect complex organismal processes such as the development of cancer and ageing.
Abstract: Cells continually experience stress and damage from exogenous and endogenous sources, and their responses range from complete recovery to cell death. Proliferating cells can initiate an additional response by adopting a state of permanent cell-cycle arrest that is termed cellular senescence. Understanding the causes and consequences of cellular senescence has provided novel insights into how cells react to stress, especially genotoxic stress, and how this cellular response can affect complex organismal processes such as the development of cancer and ageing.

3,274 citations


"Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Primary cells have a limited lifespan in culture and undergo senescence following serial passage [5]....

    [...]

  • ...Regardless of mechanism, cellular senescence is a central finding associated with mammalian aging [5], an observation emphasized by a report demonstrating that apoptotic removal of senescent cells preserves tissue homeostasis and extends overall animal health [6, 7]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Nov 2003-Nature
TL;DR: It is proposed that telomere-initiated senescence reflects a DNA damage checkpoint response that is activated with a direct contribution from dysfunctional telomeres.
Abstract: Most human somatic cells can undergo only a limited number of population doublings in vitro. This exhaustion of proliferative potential, called senescence, can be triggered when telomeres--the ends of linear chromosomes-cannot fulfil their normal protective functions. Here we show that senescent human fibroblasts display molecular markers characteristic of cells bearing DNA double-strand breaks. These markers include nuclear foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX and their co-localization with DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors such as 53BP1, MDC1 and NBS1. We also show that senescent cells contain activated forms of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2. Furthermore, by chromatin immunoprecipitation and whole-genome scanning approaches, we show that the chromosome ends of senescent cells directly contribute to the DNA damage response, and that uncapped telomeres directly associate with many, but not all, DNA damage response proteins. Finally, we show that inactivation of DNA damage checkpoint kinases in senescent cells can restore cell-cycle progression into S phase. Thus, we propose that telomere-initiated senescence reflects a DNA damage checkpoint response that is activated with a direct contribution from dysfunctional telomeres.

2,349 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
10 Nov 2011-Nature
TL;DR: Data indicate that cellular senescence is causally implicated in generating age-related phenotypes and that removal of senescent cells can prevent or delay tissue dysfunction and extend healthspan.
Abstract: Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional deficits in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms that drive ageing remain largely unknown, impeding the development of interventions that might delay or prevent age-related disorders and maximize healthy lifespan. Cellular senescence, which halts the proliferation of damaged or dysfunctional cells, is an important mechanism to constrain the malignant progression of tumour cells. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs with ageing and have been hypothesized to disrupt tissue structure and function because of the components they secrete. However, whether senescent cells are causally implicated in age-related dysfunction and whether their removal is beneficial has remained unknown. To address these fundamental questions, we made use of a biomarker for senescence, p16(Ink4a), to design a novel transgene, INK-ATTAC, for inducible elimination of p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells upon administration of a drug. Here we show that in the BubR1 progeroid mouse background, INK-ATTAC removes p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells upon drug treatment. In tissues--such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and eye--in which p16(Ink4a) contributes to the acquisition of age-related pathologies, life-long removal of p16(Ink4a)-expressing cells delayed onset of these phenotypes. Furthermore, late-life clearance attenuated progression of already established age-related disorders. These data indicate that cellular senescence is causally implicated in generating age-related phenotypes and that removal of senescent cells can prevent or delay tissue dysfunction and extend healthspan.

2,172 citations


"Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Regardless of mechanism, cellular senescence is a central finding associated with mammalian aging [5], an observation emphasized by a report demonstrating that apoptotic removal of senescent cells preserves tissue homeostasis and extends overall animal health [6, 7]....

    [...]

  • ...Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that apoptotic removal of senescent cells delays the appearance of certain age-related findings [6]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 2005-Cell
TL;DR: The senescence response may be antagonistically pleiotropic, promoting early-life survival by curtailing the development of cancer but eventually limiting longevity as dysfunctional senescent cells accumulate.
Abstract: Cells from organisms with renewable tissues can permanently withdraw from the cell cycle in response to diverse stress, including dysfunctional telomeres, DNA damage, strong mitogenic signals, and disrupted chromatin. This response, termed cellular senescence, is controlled by the p53 and RB tumor suppressor proteins and constitutes a potent anticancer mechanism. Nonetheless, senescent cells acquire phenotypic changes that may contribute to aging and certain age-related diseases, including late-life cancer. Thus, the senescence response may be antagonistically pleiotropic, promoting early-life survival by curtailing the development of cancer but eventually limiting longevity as dysfunctional senescent cells accumulate.

1,991 citations


"Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...While a direct link between cellular senescence and organismal aging has not been definitively established, aged tissues have higher levels of senescent cells than young [43]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The various features of cellular senescence are reviewed and their contribution to tumor suppression is discussed and the power and limitations of the biomarkers currently used to identify senescent cells in vitro and in vivo are highlighted.
Abstract: Almost half a century after the first reports describing the limited replicative potential of primary cells in culture, there is now overwhelming evidence for the existence of “cellular senescence” in vivo. It is being recognized as a critical feature of mammalian cells to suppress tumorigenesis, acting alongside cell death programs. Here, we review the various features of cellular senescence and discuss their contribution to tumor suppression. Additionally, we highlight the power and limitations of the biomarkers currently used to identify senescent cells in vitro and in vivo.

1,619 citations


"Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p16 (CDKN1a and CDKN2a, respectively), factors that are closely associated with senescence [21]....

    [...]