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Journal ArticleDOI

Loss-of-Set and Strategy Application on the Menu Task: An Exploratory Study

22 May 2023-Canadian journal of occupational therapy (Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy)-pp 000841742311750-000841742311750
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors explored whether test-taker strategy selection on the menu task is clinically informative and found that loss of set was associated with poorer performance on most study measures.
Abstract: Background. The Menu Task (MT) is an occupational therapy screening measure designed to identify people in need of functional cognitive (FC) assessment. Purpose. To explore whether test-taker strategy selection on the MT is clinically informative. Methods. Using a cross-sectional design we administered assessments of FC including the MT and the After MT interview, cognitive screening measures, and self-report instrumental activities of daily living assessment to a convenience sample of 55 community-dwelling adults. After MT interviews responses were qualitatively characterized as (a) loss of set (e.g., not recognizing that food preferences are irrelevant to task performance), (b) calorie counting, or (c) planning. Findings. Loss of set was associated with poorer performance on most study measures, calorie counting was associated with superior performance on most study measures, and no differences were observed relating to planning. Implications. Determining the test-takers approach to the MT adds information to that provided by the MT itself.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies is presented and tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interob server agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics.
Abstract: This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.

64,109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A 10‐minute cognitive screening tool (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA) to assist first‐line physicians in detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical state that often progresses to dementia.
Abstract: Objectives: To develop a 10-minute cognitive screening tool (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA) to assist first-line physicians in detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical state that often progresses to dementia. Design: Validation study. Setting: A community clinic and an academic center. Participants: Ninety-four patients meeting MCI clinical criteria supported by psychometric measures, 93 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score≥17), and 90 healthy elderly controls (NC). Measurements: The MoCA and MMSE were administered to all participants, and sensitivity and specificity of both measures were assessed for detection of MCI and mild AD. Results: Using a cutoff score 26, the MMSE had a sensitivity of 18% to detect MCI, whereas the MoCA detected 90% of MCI subjects. In the mild AD group, the MMSE had a sensitivity of 78%, whereas the MoCA detected 100%. Specificity was excellent for both MMSE and MoCA (100% and 87%, respectively). Conclusion: MCI as an entity is evolving and somewhat controversial. The MoCA is a brief cognitive screening tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting MCI as currently conceptualized in patients performing in the normal range on the MMSE.

16,037 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This transmutability of the validation matrix argues for the comparisons within the heteromethod block as the most generally relevant validation data, and illustrates the potential interchangeability of trait and method components.
Abstract: Content Memory (Learning Ability) As Comprehension 82 Vocabulary Cs .30 ( ) .23 .31 ( ) .31 .31 .35 ( ) .29 .48 .35 .38 ( ) .30 .40 .47 .58 .48 ( ) As judged against these latter values, comprehension (.48) and vocabulary (.47), but not memory (.31), show some specific validity. This transmutability of the validation matrix argues for the comparisons within the heteromethod block as the most generally relevant validation data, and illustrates the potential interchangeability of trait and method components. Some of the correlations in Chi's (1937) prodigious study of halo effect in ratings are appropriate to a multitrait-multimethod matrix in which each rater might be regarded as representing a different method. While the published report does not make these available in detail because it employs averaged values, it is apparent from a comparison of his Tables IV and VIII that the ratings generally failed to meet the requirement that ratings of the same trait by different raters should correlate higher than ratings of different traits by the same rater. Validity is shown to the extent that of the correlations in the heteromethod block, those in the validity diagonal are higher than the average heteromethod-heterotrait values. A conspicuously unsuccessful multitrait-multimethod matrix is provided by Campbell (1953, 1956) for rating of the leadership behavior of officers by themselves and by their subordinates. Only one of 11 variables (Recognition Behavior) met the requirement of providing a validity diagonal value higher than any of the heterotrait-heteromethod values, that validity being .29. For none of the variables were the validities higher than heterotrait-monomethod values. A study of attitudes toward authority and nonauthority figures by Burwen and Campbell (1957) contains a complex multitrait-multimethod matrix, one symmetrical excerpt from which is shown in Table 6. Method variance was strong for most of the procedures in this study. Where validity was found, it was primarily at the level of validity diagonal values higher than heterotrait-heteromethod values. As illustrated in Table 6, attitude toward father showed this kind of validity, as did attitude toward peers to a lesser degree. Attitude toward boss showed no validity. There was no evidence of a generalized attitude toward authority which would include father and boss, although such values as the VALIDATION BY THE MULTITRAIT-MULTIMETHOD MATRIX

15,795 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1991-Brain
TL;DR: A quantitative investigation of the ability to carry out a variety of cognitive tasks was performed in patients who had sustained traumatic injuries which involved prefrontal structures, and it is argued that the problem arose from an inability to reactivate after a delay previously-generated intentions when they are not directly signalled by the stimulus situation.
Abstract: A quantitative investigation of the ability to carry out a variety of cognitive tasks was performed in 3 patients who had sustained traumatic injuries which involved prefrontal structures. All 3 had severe difficulties in 2 tests which required them to carry out a number of fairly simple but open-ended tasks over a 15-30 min period. They typically spent too long on individual tasks. All patients scored well on tests of perception, language and intelligence and 2 performed well on a variety of other tests of frontal lobe function. Explanations for their difficulty on the multiple subgoal tasks in terms of memory or motivational problems could be excluded. It is argued that the problem arose from an inability to reactivate after a delay previously-generated intentions when they are not directly signalled by the stimulus situation.

1,942 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper developed a set of informant-based items describing performance of activities of daily living (ADL) by patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to identify which ADL are useful for assessment of patients in clinical trials.
Abstract: SummaryWe developed a set of informant-based items describing performance of activities of daily living (ADL) by patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to identify which ADL are useful for assessment of patients in clinical trials. Evaluation of ADL is an important outcome measure in AD clinical tri

1,096 citations