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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Low cost lift-off process optimization for MEMS applications

TL;DR: In this article, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process, which offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift off or bilayer lift off with LOR.
Abstract: The patterning of thin films play major role in the performance of MEMS devices. The wet etching gives an isotropic profile and etch rate depends on the temperature, size of the microstructures and repetitive use of the solution. Even with the use of selective etchants, it significantly attacks the underlying layer. On the other side, dry etching is expensive process. In this paper, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process. Double layer lift-off technique offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift-off or bilayer lift-off with LOR. The problem of retention and flagging is resolved. The thickness of double coat photoresist is increased by 2.3 times to single coat photo resist.
References
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Book
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The second edition of the Fundamentals of Microfabrication as discussed by the authors provides an in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials, from the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering.
Abstract: MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world.A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field.Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem.New in the Second EditionRevised chapters that reflect the many recent advances in the fieldUpdated and enhanced discussions of topics including DNA arrays, microfluidics, micromolding techniques, and nanotechnology In-depth coverage of bio-MEMs, RF-MEMs, high-temperature, and optical MEMs.Many more links to the WebProblem sets in each chapter

2,334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the etch rates of 53 materials that are used or potentially can be used or in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems and integrated circuits were prepared.
Abstract: Samples of 53 materials that are used or potentially can be used or in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems and integrated circuits were prepared: single-crystal silicon with two doping levels, polycrystalline silicon with two doping levels, polycrystalline germanium, polycrystalline SiGe, graphite, fused quartz, Pyrex 7740, nine other preparations of silicon dioxide, four preparations of silicon nitride, sapphire, two preparations of aluminum oxide, aluminum, Al/2%Si, titanium, vanadium, niobium, two preparations of tantalum, two preparations of chromium, Cr on Au, molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, palladium, platinum, copper, silver, gold, 10 Ti/90 W, 80 Ni/20 Cr, TiN, four types of photoresist, resist pen, Parylene-C, and spin-on polyimide. Selected samples were etched in 35 different etches: isotropic silicon etchant, potassium hydroxide, 10:1 HF, 5:1 BHF, Pad Etch 4, hot phosphoric acid, Aluminum Etchant Type A, titanium wet etchant, CR-7 chromium etchant, CR-14 chromium etchant, molybdenum etchant, warm hydrogen peroxide, Copper Etchant Type CE-200, Copper Etchant APS 100, dilute aqua regia, AU-5 gold etchant, Nichrome Etchant TFN, hot sulfuric+phosphoric acids, Piranha, Microstrip 2001, acetone, methanol, isopropanol, xenon difluoride, HF+H/sub 2/O vapor, oxygen plasma, two deep reactive ion etch recipes with two different types of wafer clamping, SF/sub 6/ plasma, SF/sub 6/+O/sub 2/ plasma, CF/sub 4/ plasma, CF/sub 4/+O/sub 2/ plasma, and argon ion milling. The etch rates of 620 combinations of these were measured. The etch rates of thermal oxide in different dilutions of HF and BHF are also reported. Sample preparation and information about the etches is given.

1,256 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The etch rates for 317 combinations of 16 materials (single-crystal silicon, doped, and undoped polysilicon, several types of silicon dioxide, stoichiometric and silicon-rich silicon nitride, aluminum, tungsten, titanium, Ti/W alloy, and two brands of positive photoresist) used in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems and integrated circuits in 28 wet, plasma, and plasmaless-gas-phase etches (several HF solutions, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4), HNO/sub
Abstract: The etch rates for 317 combinations of 16 materials (single-crystal silicon, doped, and undoped polysilicon, several types of silicon dioxide, stoichiometric and silicon-rich silicon nitride, aluminum, tungsten, titanium, Ti/W alloy, and two brands of positive photoresist) used in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems and integrated circuits in 28 wet, plasma, and plasmaless-gas-phase etches (several HF solutions, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, HNO/sub 3/+H/sub 2/O+NH/sub 4/F, KOH, Type A aluminum etchant, H/sub 2/O+H/sub 2/O/sub 2/+HF, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, piranha, acetone, HF vapor, XeF/sub 2/, and various combinations of SF/sub 6/, CF/sub 4/, CHF/sub 3/, Cl/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, and He in plasmas) were measured and are tabulated. Etch preparation, use, and chemical reactions (from the technical literature) are given. Sample preparation and MEMS applications are described for the materials.

930 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a 3-bit DMTL phase shifter, fabricated on a glass substrate using MEMS switches and coplanar-waveguide lines, results in an average loss of 2.7 dB at 78 GHz (0.9 dB/bit).
Abstract: This paper presents state-of-the-art RF microelectromechanical (MEMS) phase shifters at 75-110 GHz based on the distributed microelectromechanical transmission-line (DMTL) concept. A 3-bit DMTL phase shifter, fabricated on a glass substrate using MEMS switches and coplanar-waveguide lines, results in an average loss of 2.7 dB at 78 GHz (0.9 dB/bit). The measured figure-of-merit performance is 93/spl deg//dB-100/spl deg//dB (equivalent to 0.9 dB/bit) of loss at 75-110 GHz. The associated phase error is /spl plusmn/3/spl deg/ (rms phase error is 1.56/spl deg/) and the reflection loss is below -10 dB over all eight states. A 2-bit phase shifter is also demonstrated with comparable performance to the 3-bit design. It is seen that the phase shifter can be accurately modeled using a combination of full-wave electromagnetic and microwave circuit analysis, thereby making the design quite easy up to 110 GHz. These results represent the best phase-shifter performance to date using any technology at W-band frequencies. Careful analysis indicates that the 75-110-GHz figure-of-merit performance becomes 150/spl deg//dB-200/spl deg//dB, and the 3-bit average insertion loss improves to 1.8-2.1 dB if the phase shifter is fabricated on quartz substrates.

144 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a symmetric toggle switch (STS) is proposed for 8-14 GHz applications with low actuation voltage and high isolation, for high power and reliability applications in telecommunication.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a new type of rf MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and high isolation, for high rf power and reliability applications in telecommunication. ‘Symmetric toggle switch’ (STS) is based on push–pull mechanism and utilizes torsion springs and levers, placed symmetrically and transverse to CPW line. The switches designed for 8–14 GHz applications have analytically calculated and FEM simulated actuation voltages in the range of 8–10 V. The simulated insertion loss and isolation for the devices are 0.25 and 35 dB, respectively, at 10 GHz. The fabrication process and preliminary experimental results are also presented.

66 citations