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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/23744235.2020.1849787

Low rate of COVID-19 seroconversion in health-care workers at a Department of Infectious Diseases in Sweden during the later phase of the first wave; a prospective longitudinal seroepidemiological study.

04 Mar 2021-Infectious diseases (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 53, Iss: 3, pp 169-175
Abstract: Background: Health-care workers are at risk of contracting and transmitting SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and the rate of seroconversion in an environment with high exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Methods: 131 health-care workers at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Vasteras, Sweden, were included in the study. Abbott's SARS-COV-2 IgG immunoassay was used with a signal cut-off ratio of ≥1.4. Every third week from the beginning of May, blood samples were drawn, and the participants completed a questionnaire regarding symptoms consistent with COVID-19 and the result of any SARS-CoV-2 PCR performed since the last sampling occasion. Participants with IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were re-sampled only on the sixth and last occasion. Results: At the start of the study, 18 (15%) participants had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. At the end, 25 (19%) of 131 participants were seropositive. One case of asymptomatic infection was detected, and two cases with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 did not develop IgG antibodies. Conclusion: The low rate of seroconversion during the study suggests that it is possible to prevent transmission of SARS-COV-2 in a high-exposure environment. Compliance with adequate infection control guidelines is the likely explanation of our findings.

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Topics: Seroconversion (61%)
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12 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.689994
Khitam Muhsen1, Mitchell J. Schwaber2, Jihad Bishara1, Eias Kassem  +22 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Objectives: This study aims to examine the prevalence and risk factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sero-positivity in health care workers (HCWs), a main risk group, and assess the sero-incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection between the first and second waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Israel. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted among 874 HCWs from nine hospitals. Demographics, health information, and blood samples were obtained at baseline (first wave-April-May 2020) and at follow-up (n = 373) (second wave-September-November 2020). Sero-positivity was determined based on the detection of total antibodies to the nucleocapsid antigen of SARS-CoV-2, using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2, Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Results: The sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 1.1% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.6-2.1] at baseline and 8.3% (95% CI 5.9-11.6) at follow-up. The sero-conversion of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody was 6.9% (95% CI 4.7-9.9) during the study period. The increase in SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence paralleled the rise in PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections among the HCWs across the country. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was higher in males vs. females [odds ratio (OR) 2.52 (95% CI 1.05-6.06)] and in nurses vs. physicians [OR 4.26 (95% CI 1.08-16.77)] and was associated with being quarantined due to exposure to COVID-19 patients [OR 3.54 (95% CI 1.58-7.89)] and having a positive PCR result [OR 109.5 (95% CI 23.88-502.12)]. Conclusions: A significant increase in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found among HCWs between the first and second waves of COVID-19 in Israel. Nonetheless, the sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remains low, similar to the general population. Our findings reinforce the rigorous infection control policy, including quarantine, and utilization of personal protective equipment that should be continued together with COVID-19 immunization in HCWs and the general population.

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Topics: Population (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10040465
12 Apr 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: It is assumed that healthcare workers are at the highest risk to be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, few data from healthcare workers who do not primarily take care of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection support this assumption. We investigated the prevalence of immunoglobulin G (Ig G) against SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers who do not primarily take care of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the general population in a well-defined geographical area. The first part of the study was conducted in May 2020 in Val Mesolcina (Southern Switzerland), a valley with ~8000 inhabitants. All healthcare workers were invited. All participants (n = 488) of the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study (SWICOS), a cohort representative of the general population, were also invited. Circulating Ig G against spike protein subunit 1 of SARS-CoV-2 were tested in each subject. Subjects with positive Ig G were tested again after 6 months. The condition of being a healthcare worker, rather than a part of the general population, was tested as a predictor of seroprevalence positivity by both simple and multiple (adjusted for age and sex) logistic regression. Eleven (2.6%) of the 423 SWICOS participants and 46 (16%) out of 289 healthcare workers were positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The seroprevalence OR was 7.01 (95% CI: 3.53–15.47) for healthcare workers as compared to SWICOS participants. After adjusting for age and gender, the seroprevalence OR was 5.13 (95% CI: 2.54–10.40). About three quarters of the subjects in the SWICOS (73%) and in healthcare (79%) group with a previous positive serology still presented positive Ig G against the SARS-CoV-2 after 6 months. The present seroprevalence data point out that the SARS-CoV-2 infection is seven times higher among healthcare workers than in the general population of Val Mesolcina. Efforts to effectively protect all the healthcare personnel are needed.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (55%), Population (55%), Cohort (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/23744235.2021.1885734
Abstract: A year into the pandemic, the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection risks among healthcare workers remains limited. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether healthcare workers with high expos...

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.21640/NS.V13IE.2797
09 Apr 2021-Nova Scientia
Abstract: Health care workers attending the current pandemic are highly exposed to contagion of COVID-19. Due to the multiple variety of symptoms this disease presents, a need to further study the presence and dynamics of anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the Guanajuato State Laboratory of Public Health arises, place where the rRT-PCR test for COVID-19 diagnose has been concentrated since March 2020. This study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, in such workers and their maintenance after 5 months. Method: Blood samples were collected from the 100 workers that remained working in the institution since March 2020 and were tested with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay used for the semiquantitative detection of anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Results: Findings of seroprevalence was 6%, nevertheless, only 67% kept a positive titer after 5 months. No differences by gender nor symptoms were found. The 4 workers with previous positive rRT-PCR test record, developed antibodies at the beginning of the study, as 2 workers who did not have previous positive rRT-PCR test record and were considered as asymptomatic. Discussion or Conclusion: A low seroprevalence was observed in the laboratory staff compared to other health care workers studies. This could be due to the adequate use of safety equipment, good laboratory practice and the implementation of containment strategies within the institution.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (57%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/23744235.2021.1959949
Abstract: Previous seroprevalence studies have demonstrated higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) than in the background population during the first phase of the 2020 COVID-1...

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Topics: Seroprevalence (55%), Population (53%)

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28 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.08.017
01 Oct 2020-Cell
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells will likely prove critical for long-term immune protection against COVID-19. Here, we systematically mapped the functional and phenotypic landscape of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in unexposed individuals, exposed family members, and individuals with acute or convalescent COVID-19. Acute-phase SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells displayed a highly activated cytotoxic phenotype that correlated with various clinical markers of disease severity, whereas convalescent-phase SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were polyfunctional and displayed a stem-like memory phenotype. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detectable in antibody-seronegative exposed family members and convalescent individuals with a history of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. Our collective dataset shows that SARS-CoV-2 elicits broadly directed and functionally replete memory T cell responses, suggesting that natural exposure or infection may prevent recurrent episodes of severe COVID-19.

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Topics: Memory T cell (66%), T cell (63%), Cytotoxic T cell (62%) ... read more

879 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.4344
14 Apr 2020-JAMA

706 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/JCM.00941-20
Andrew Bryan1, Gregory Pepper1, Mark H. Wener1, Susan L. Fink1  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the novel respiratory illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The rollout of diagnostic testing in the United States was slow, leading to numerous cases that were not tested for SARS-CoV-2 in February and March 2020 and necessitating the use of serological testing to determine past infections. Here, we evaluated the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test for detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies by testing 3 distinct patient populations. We tested 1,020 serum specimens collected prior to SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the United States and found one false positive, indicating a specificity of 99.90%. We tested 125 patients who tested reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) positive for SARS-CoV-2 for whom 689 excess serum specimens were available and found that sensitivity reached 100% at day 17 after symptom onset and day 13 after PCR positivity. Alternative index value thresholds for positivity resulted in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in this cohort. We tested specimens from 4,856 individuals from Boise, ID, collected over 1 week in April 2020 as part of the Crush the Curve initiative and detected 87 positives for a positivity rate of 1.79%. These data demonstrate excellent analytical performance of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test as well as the limited circulation of the virus in the western United States. We expect that the availability of high-quality serological testing will be a key tool in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (55%)

410 Citations