Lowest remnant thickness estimation using Staircase Magnetostrictive Patch (ScaMP) Transducer
01 Feb 2023-Ndt & E International-Vol. 136, pp 102811-102811
TL;DR: In this article , the Staircase Magnetostrictive Patch (ScaMP) transducer was proposed for wall thickness reduction, which typically results from corrosion, erosion, or operating conditions.
Abstract: Wall thickness reduction, which typically results from corrosion, erosion, or operating conditions, is a significant challenge in many industries. In order to generate a broadband pure shear horizontal wave mode in plate structures, this paper proposes a magnetostrictive patch transducer called the Staircase Magnetostrictive Patch (ScaMP) Transducer. For ScaMP transduction, an optimised patch width offers a broadband frequency response is employed. The lowest remnant thickness of the sample was estimated using the wideband SH1 dispersive guided wave mode's cut-off property. The broad frequency excitation method enabled measurement over a range of wall thinning up to 80% of the nominal thickness with a single data acquisition. Experiments were carried out on an 8 mm nominal wall thickness aluminium plate with gouge defects to evaluate the proposed sensor's broad frequency response. The measurement of remnant thickness was estimated with a maximum error of 5.5%.
TL;DR: The results indicate that Lamb waves may be used to find notches when the wavelength to notch depth ratio is on the order of 40, and the 2-D Fourier transform method is used to quantify Lamb wave interactions with defects.
Abstract: The interaction of individual Lamb waves with a variety of defects simulated by notches is investigated using finite-element analysis, and the results are checked experimentally. Excellent agreement is obtained. It is shown that a 2-D Fourier transform method may be used to quantify Lamb wave interactions with defects. The sensitivity of individual Lamb waves to particular notches is dependent on the frequency-thickness product, the mode type and order, and the geometry of the notch. The sensitivity of the Lamb modes a/sub 1/, alpha /sub 0/, and s/sub 0/ to simulated defects in different frequency-thickness regions is predicted as a function of the defect depth to plate thickness ratio and the results indicate that Lamb waves may be used to find notches when the wavelength to notch depth ratio is on the order of 40. Transmission ratios of Lamb waves across defects are highly frequency dependent. >
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a review of the studies of the propagation of the waves and their sensitivity to defects which have been conducted in order to provide a sound scientific basis for the method.
Abstract: The detection of corrosion in insulated pipes is of major importance to the oil and chemical industries. Current methods involving point-by-point inspection are expensive because of the need to remove the insulation. An alternative method which is being developed at Imperial College is to propagate guided waves in the walls of the pipes, and to look for reflections from defects. The test configuration is essentially pulse-echo; the insulation is removed at just one location on a pipe and the signals are then transmitted and received using a single transducer unit. The technique is currently undergoing field trials. This paper presents a review of the studies of the propagation of the waves and their sensitivity to defects which have been conducted in order to provide a sound scientific basis for the method. Issues of importance were the selection of the optimum guided wave modes and the establishment of relationships between the defect size and the strength of wave reflection. Analytical and numerical studies were conducted in parallel with an extensive experimental programme.
TL;DR: A variety of state-of-the-art MPT configurations and their applications will be reviewed along with the working principle of this transducer type.
Abstract: A magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) is a transducer that exploits the magnetostrictive phenomena representing interactions between mechanical and magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. Since MPT technology was mainly developed and applied for nondestructive ultrasonic testing in waveguides such as pipes and plates, this paper will accordingly review advances of this technology in such a context. An MPT consists of a magnetic circuit composed of permanent magnets and coils, and a thin magnetostrictive patch that works as a sensing and actuating element which is bonded onto or coupled with a test waveguide. The configurations of the circuit and magnetostrictive patch therefore critically affect the performance of an MPT as well as the excited and measured wave modes in a waveguide. In this paper, a variety of state-of-the-art MPT configurations and their applications will be reviewed along with the working principle of this transducer type. The use of MPTs in wave experiments involving phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is also briefly introduced.
TL;DR: A finite element model of the elementary transducers has been developed and shows that magnetostrictive EMATs directly applied on mild steel plates have comparatively poor performance that is dependent on the precise magneto-mechanical properties of the test object.
Abstract: Guided wave inspection has proven to be a very effective method for the rapid inspection of large structures. The fundamental shear horizontal (SH) wave mode in plates and the torsional mode in pipe-like structures are especially useful because of their non-dispersive character. Guided waves can be generated by either piezoelectric transducers or electro- magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), and EMATs can be based on either the Lorentz force or magnetostriction. Several EMAT configurations can be used to produce SH waves, the most common being Lorentz-force periodic permanent magnet and magnetostrictive EMATs, the latter being directly applied on the sample or with a bonded strip of highly magnetostrictive material on the plate. This paper compares the performance of these solutions on steel structures. To quantitatively assess the wave amplitude produced by different probes, a finite element model of the elementary transducers has been developed. The results of the model are experimentally validated and the simulations are further used to study the dependence of ultrasonic wave amplitude on key design parameters. The analysis shows that magnetostrictive EMATs directly applied on mild steel plates have comparatively poor performance that is dependent on the precise magneto-mechanical properties of the test object. Periodic permanent magnet EMATs generate intermediate wave amplitudes and are noncontact and insensitive to the variations in properties seen across typical steels. Large signal amplitudes can be achieved with magnetostrictive EMATs with a layer of highly magnetostrictive material attached between the transducer and the plate, but this compromises the noncontact nature of the transducer.