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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41388-021-01722-8

Lymph node metastasis-derived gastric cancer cells educate bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via YAP signaling activation by exosomal Wnt5a

02 Mar 2021-Oncogene (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 40, Iss: 12, pp 2296-2308
Abstract: Lymph node metastasis (LNM), a common metastatic gastric-cancer (GC) route, is closely related to poor prognosis in GC patients. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) preferentially engraft at metastatic lesions. Whether BM-MSCs are specifically reprogrammed by LNM-derived GC cells (LNM-GCs) and incorporated into metastatic LN microenvironment to prompt GC malignant progression remains unknown. Herein, we found that LNM-GCs specifically educated BM-MSCs via secretory exosomes. Exosomal Wnt5a was identified as key protein mediating LNM-GCs education of BM-MSCs, which was verified by analysis of serum exosomes collected from GC patients with LNM. Wnt5a-enriched exosomes induced YAP dephosphorylation in BM-MSCs, whereas Wnt5a-deficient exosomes exerted the opposite effect. Inhibition of YAP signaling by verteporfin blocked LNM-GC exosome- and serum exosome-mediated reprogramming in BM-MSCs. Analysis of MSC-like cells obtained from metastatic LN tissues of GC patients (GLN-MSCs) confirmed that BM-MSCs incorporated into metastatic LN microenvironment, and that YAP activation participated in maintaining their tumor-promoting phenotype and function. Collectively, our results show that LNM-GCs specifically educated BM-MSCs via exosomal Wnt5a-elicited activation of YAP signaling. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of LNM in GC and BM-MSC reprogramming, and will provide potential therapeutic targets and detection indicators for GC patients with LNM.

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Topics: Exosome (57%), Cancer cell (52%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12943-021-01365-Z
Hao Wu1, Mengdi Fu1, Jin Liu1, Wei Chong1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
29 Apr 2021-Molecular Cancer
Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is a common tumour that affects humans worldwide, is highly malignant and has a poor prognosis. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), especially exosomes, are nanoscale vesicles released by various cells that deliver bioactive molecules to recipient cells, affecting their biological characteristics, changing the tumour microenvironment and producing long-distance effects. In recent years, many studies have clarified the mechanisms by which sEVs function with regard to the initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance of GC. These molecules can function as mediators of cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment and might affect the efficacy of immunotherapy. Due to their unique physiochemical characteristics, sEVs show potential as effective antitumour vaccines as well as drug carriers. In this review, we summarize the roles of sEVs in GC and highlight the clinical application prospects in the future.

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Topics: Microvesicles (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.617677
Yuyi Li1, Xingwei Zhong1, Yunzhu Zhang1, Xinliang Lu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Tumor progression depends on the collaborative interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma. First-line therapies direct against cancer cells may not reach a satisfactory outcome, such as gastric cancer (GC), with high risk of recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, novel treatments and drugs target the effects of stroma components are to be promising alternatives. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent the decisive components of tumor stroma that are found to strongly affect GC development and progression. MSC from bone marrow or adjacent normal tissues express homing profiles in timely response to GC-related inflammation signals and anchor into tumor bulks. Then the newly recruited "naive" MSC would achieve phenotype and functional alternations and adopt the greater tumor-supporting potential under the reprogramming of GC cells. Conversely, both new-comers and tumor-resident MSC are able to modulate the tumor biology via aberrant activation of oncogenic signals, metabolic reprogramming and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. And they also engage in remodeling the stroma better suited for tumor progression through immunosuppression, pro-angiogenesis, as well as extracellular matrix reshaping. On the account of tumor tropism, MSC could be engineered to assist earlier diagnosis of GC and deliver tumor-killing agents precisely to the tumor microenvironment. Meanwhile, intercepting and abrogating vicious signals derived from MSC are of certain significance for the combat of GC. In this review, we mainly summarize current advances concerning the reciprocal metabolic interactions between MSC and GC and their underlying therapeutic implications in the future.

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Topics: Tumor progression (59%), Tumor microenvironment (56%), Reprogramming (51%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1096/FBA.2021-00079
06 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Among a plethora of functions, extracellular vesicles released by primary tumors spread in the organism and reach distant organs where they can induce the formation of a premetastatic niche. This constitutes a favorable microenvironment for circulating tumor cells which facilitates their seeding and colonization. In this review, we describe the journey of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the primary tumor to the future metastatic organ, with a focus on the mechanisms used by EVs to target organs with a specific tropism (i.e., organotropism). We then highlight important tumor EV cargos in the context of premetastatic niche formation and summarize their known effects on extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, vessel permeabilization, resident cell activation, recruitment of foreign cells, and ultimately the formation of a pro-inflammatory and immuno-tolerant microenvironment. Finally, we discuss current experimental limitations and remaining opened questions in light of metastatic diagnosis and potential therapies targeting PMN formation.

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Topics: Cell activation (52%), Circulating tumor cell (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SEMCDB.2021.10.001
Pablo Astudillo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Wnt5a is a ligand that plays several roles in development, homeostasis, and disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that Wnt5a is involved in cancer progression. Despite extensive research in this field, our knowledge about how Wnt5a is precisely involved in cancer is still incomplete. It is usually thought that certain combinations of Frizzled receptors and co-receptors might explain the observed effects of Wnt5a either as a tumor suppressor or by promoting migration and invasion. While accepting this 'receptor context' model, this review proposes that Wnt5a is integrated within a larger regulatory circuit involving β-catenin, YAP/TAZ, and LATS1/2. Remarkably, WNT5A and YAP1 are transcriptionally regulated by the Hippo and Wnt pathways, respectively, and might form a regulatory circuit acting through LATS kinases and secreted Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors, including Wnt5a itself. Therefore, understanding the precise role of Wnt5a and YAP in cancer requires a systems biology perspective.

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Topics: Frizzled (55%), Wnt signaling pathway (54%), YAP1 (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/CMAR.S331221
Ling Lu1, Shikun Fang1, Yue Zhang1, Longtao Jin1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is a common malignant tumor affecting human health, with occult onset and poor prognosis. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by almost all cells, which can reflect the state of source cells or tissues. It is reported that exosomes are involved in almost all processes of GC. Exosomes provided a window to understand changes in cell or tissue states by carrying active components such as circular RNAs (circRNAs). CircRNAs are a naturally occurring class of endogenous noncoding RNAs and abnormal expression during the occurrence and development of GC. Exosomal circRNAs are those circRNAs stably existing in exosomes and having high clinical values as novel potential diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers of GC, which have the characteristics of abnormal expression, tissue specificity and development stage specificity. Herein, we briefly summarize the functions and roles and the current research progress of exosomes and exosomal circRNAs in GC with a focus on the potential application for GC progression, diagnosis and prognosis. We also prospected the clinical application of exosomes and exosomal circRNAs in the future.

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40 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21338
Wanqing Chen, Rongshou Zheng, Peter D. Baade1, Siwei Zhang  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. Because of China's massive population (1.37 billion), previous national incidence and mortality estimates have been limited to small samples of the population using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year. With high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries now available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the authors analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population, to estimate the number of new cases and cancer deaths for 2015. Data from 22 registries were used for trend analyses (2000-2011). The results indicated that an estimated 4292,000 new cancer cases and 2814,000 cancer deaths would occur in China in 2015, with lung cancer being the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Stomach, esophageal, and liver cancers were also commonly diagnosed and were identified as leading causes of cancer death. Residents of rural areas had significantly higher age-standardized (Segi population) incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined than urban residents (213.6 per 100,000 vs 191.5 per 100,000 for incidence; 149.0 per 100,000 vs 109.5 per 100,000 for mortality, respectively). For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (+0.2% per year; P = .1), whereas they increased significantly (+2.2% per year; P < .05) among females. In contrast, the mortality rates since 2006 have decreased significantly for both males (-1.4% per year; P < .05) and females (-1.1% per year; P < .05). Many of the estimated cancer cases and deaths can be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations.

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Topics: Mortality rate (66%), Cancer registry (63%), Causes of cancer (56%) ... show more

10,557 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2012.11.024
21 Dec 2012-Cell
Abstract: Stroma in the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer progression, but how it promotes metastasis is poorly understood. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by many cell types and enable a potent mode of intercellular communication. Here, we report that fibroblast-secreted exosomes promote breast cancer cell (BCC) protrusive activity and motility via Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. We show that exosome-stimulated BCC protrusions display mutually exclusive localization of the core PCP complexes, Fzd-Dvl and Vangl-Pk. In orthotopic mouse models of breast cancer, coinjection of BCCs with fibroblasts dramatically enhances metastasis that is dependent on PCP signaling in BCCs and the exosome component, Cd81 in fibroblasts. Moreover, we demonstrate that trafficking in BCCs promotes tethering of autocrine Wnt11 to fibroblast-derived exosomes. This work reveals an intercellular communication pathway whereby fibroblast exosomes mobilize autocrine Wnt-PCP signaling to drive BCC invasive behavior.

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Topics: Exosome (64%), Autocrine signalling (59%), Tumor microenvironment (54%) ... show more

949 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCB2574
Abstract: Wnt signalling has important roles during development and in many diseases As morphogens, hydrophobic Wnt proteins exert their function over a distance to induce patterning and cell differentiation decisions Recent studies have identified several factors that are required for the secretion of Wnt proteins; however, how Wnts travel in the extracellular space remains a largely unresolved question Here we show that Wnts are secreted on exosomes both during Drosophila development and in human cells We demonstrate that exosomes carry Wnts on their surface to induce Wnt signalling activity in target cells Together with the cargo receptor Evi/WIs, Wnts are transported through endosomal compartments onto exosomes, a process that requires the R-SNARE Ykt6 Our study demonstrates an evolutionarily conserved functional role of extracellular vesicular transport of Wnt proteins

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697 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2015.07.013
Hyun Woo Park1, Young Chul Kim1, Bo Yu2, Toshiro Moroishi1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
13 Aug 2015-Cell
Abstract: The transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ are key regulators of organ size and tissue homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to human cancer. Here, we discover YAP/TAZ as bona fide downstream effectors of the alternative Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt5a/b and Wnt3a induce YAP/TAZ activation independent of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, we delineate the "alternative Wnt-YAP/TAZ signaling axis" that consists of Wnt-FZD/ROR-Gα12/13-Rho GTPases-Lats1/2 to promote YAP/TAZ activation and TEAD-mediated transcription. YAP/TAZ mediate the biological functions of alternative Wnt signaling, including gene expression, osteogenic differentiation, cell migration, and antagonism of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Together, our work establishes YAP/TAZ as critical mediators of alternative Wnt signaling.

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Topics: Frizzled (58%), LRP6 (57%), Wnt signaling pathway (57%) ... show more

403 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7150/THNO.17133
Shi-Cong Tao1, Ting Yuan1, Yuelei Zhang1, Wenjing Yin1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2017-Theranostics
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease throughout the world. Exosomes derived from miR-140-5p-overexpressing synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC-140s) may be effective in treating OA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from SMSC-140 (SMSC-140-Exos) would enhance the proliferation and migration abilities of articular chondrocytes (ACs) without harming extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. METHODS: SMSCs were transfected with or without miR-140-5p. Exosomes derived from SMSCs or SMSC-140s (SMSC-Exos or SMSC-140-Exos) were isolated and identified. Proliferation, migration and ECM secretion were measured in vitro and compared between groups. The mechanism involving alternative Wnt signalling and activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) was investigated using lentivirus, oligonucleotides or chemical drugs. The preventative effect of exosomes in vivo was measured using Safranin-O and Fast green staining and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Wnt5a and Wnt5b carried by exosomes activated YAP via the alternative Wnt signalling pathway and enhanced proliferation and migration of chondrocytes with the side-effect of significantly decreasing ECM secretion. Highly-expressed miR-140-5p blocked this side-effect via RalA. SMSC-140-Exos enhanced the proliferation and migration of ACs without damaging ECM secretion in vitro, while in vivo, SMSC-140-Exos successfully prevented OA in a rat model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the promising potential of SMSC-140-Exos in preventing OA. We first found a potential source of exosomes and studied their merits and shortcomings. Based on our understanding of the molecular mechanism, we overcame the shortcomings by modifying the exosomes. Such exosomes derived from modified cells hold potential as future therapeutic strategies.

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278 Citations