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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/6682283

Machine Learning-Based Modeling with Optimization Algorithm for Predicting Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Concrete

04 Mar 2021-Advances in Civil Engineering (Hindawi Publishing Corporation)-Vol. 2021, pp 6682283
Abstract: In this research, multiexpression programming (MEP) has been employed to model the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of waste sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) concrete. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to fine-tune the hyperparameter of the proposed MEP. The formulation of SCBA concrete was correlated with five input parameters. To train and test the proposed model, a large number of data were collected from the published literature. Afterward, waste SCBA was collected, processed, and characterized for partial replacement of cement in concrete. Concrete specimens with varying proportion of SCBA were prepared in the laboratory, and results were used for model validation. The performance of the developed models was then evaluated by statistical criteria and error assessment tests. The result shows that the performance of MEP with PSO algorithm significantly enhanced its accuracy. The essential input variables affecting the output were revealed, and the parametric analysis confirms that the models are accurate and have captured the essential properties of SCBA. Finally, the cross validation ensured the generalized capacity and robustness of the models. Hence, the adopted approach, i.e., MEP-based modeling with PSO, could be an effective tool for accurate modeling of the concrete properties, thus directly contributing to the construction sector by consuming waste and protecting the environment.

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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13084576
20 Apr 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Modeling surface water quality using soft computing techniques is essential for the effective management of scarce water resources and environmental protection. The development of accurate predictive models with significant input parameters and inconsistent datasets is still a challenge. Therefore, further research is needed to improve the performance of the predictive models. This study presents a methodology for dataset pre-processing and input optimization for reducing the modeling complexity. The objective of this study was achieved by employing a two-sided detection approach for outlier removal and an exhaustive search method for selecting essential modeling inputs. Thereafter, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied for modeling electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) in the upper Indus River. A larger dataset of a 30-year historical period, measured monthly, was utilized in the modeling process. The prediction capacity of the developed models was estimated by statistical assessment indicators. Moreover, the 10-fold cross-validation method was carried out to address the modeling overfitting issue. The results of the input optimization indicate that Ca2+, Na+, and Cl− are the most relevant inputs to be used for EC. Meanwhile, Mg2+, HCO3−, and SO42− were selected to model TDS levels. The optimum ANFIS models for the EC and TDS data showed R values of 0.91 and 0.92, and the root mean squared error (RMSE) results of 30.6 µS/cm and 16.7 ppm, respectively. The optimum ANFIS structure comprises a hybrid training algorithm with 27 fuzzy rules of triangular fuzzy membership functions for EC and a Gaussian curve for TDS modeling, respectively. Evidently, the outcome of the present study reveals that the ANFIS modeling, aided with data pre-processing and input optimization, is a suitable technique for simulating the quality of surface water. It could be an effective approach in minimizing modeling complexity and elaborating proper management and mitigation measures.

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Topics: Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (61%), Overfitting (53%), Neuro-fuzzy (52%) ... read more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CRYST11070779
01 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Efforts are being devoted to reducing the harmful effect of the construction industry around the globe, including the use of rice husk ash as a partial replacement of cement. However, no method is available to date to predict the compressive strength (CS) of rice husk ash blended concrete (RHAC). In this study, advanced machine learning techniques (artificial neural network, artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system) were used to predict the CS of RHAC. Based on the published literature, six inputs, i.e., age of specimen, percentage of rice husk ash, percentage of superplasticizer, aggregates, water, and amount of cement, were selected. Results obtained from machine learning methods were compared with traditional methods such as linear and non-linear regressions. It was observed that the performance of machine learning methods was superior to traditional methods for determining the CS of RHAC. This study will prove beneficial in minimizing the cost and time of executing laboratory experiments for designing the optimum content portions of RHAC.

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Topics: Superplasticizer (50%), Compressive strength (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13147515
06 Jul 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Water pollution is an increasing global issue that societies are facing and is threating human health, ecosystem functions and agriculture production. The distinguished features of artificial intelligence (AI) based modeling can deliver a deep insight pertaining to rising water quality concerns. The current study investigates the predictive performance of gene expression programming (GEP), artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression model (LRM) for modeling monthly total dissolved solids (TDS) and specific conductivity (EC) in the upper Indus River at two outlet stations. In total, 30 years of historical water quality data, comprising 360 TDS and EC monthly records, were used for models training and testing. Based on a significant correlation, the TDS and EC modeling were correlated with seven input parameters. Results were evaluated using various performance measure indicators, error assessment and external criteria. The simulated outcome of the models indicated a strong association with actual data where the correlation coefficient above 0.9 was observed for both TDS and EC. Both the GEP and ANN models remained the reliable techniques in predicting TDS and EC. The formulated GEP mathematical equations depict its novelty as compared to ANN and LRM. The results of sensitivity analysis indicated the increasing trend of input variables affecting TDS as HCO3 ?? (22.33%) > Cl?? (21.66%) > Mg2+ (16.98%) > Na+ (14.55%) > Ca2+ (12.92%) > SO4 2?? (11.55%) > pH (0%), while, in the case of EC, it followed the trend as HCO3 ?? (42.36%) > SO4 2??(25.63%) > Ca2+ (13.59%) > Cl?? (12.8%) > Na+ (5.01%) > pH (0.61%) > Mg2+ (0%). The parametric analysis revealed that models have incorporated the effect of all the input parameters in the modeling process. The external assessment criteria confirmed the generalized outcome and robustness of the proposed approaches. Conclusively, the outcomes of this study demonstrated that the formulation of AI based models are cost effective and helpful for river water quality assessment, management and policy making.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14195659
28 Sep 2021-Materials
Abstract: The application of multiphysics models and soft computing techniques is gaining enormous attention in the construction sector due to the development of various types of concrete. In this research, an improved form of supervised machine learning, i.e., multigene expression programming (MEP), has been used to propose models for the compressive strength (fc'), splitting tensile strength (fSTS), and flexural strength (fFS) of sustainable bagasse ash concrete (BAC). The training and testing of the proposed models have been accomplished by developing a reliable and comprehensive database from published literature. Concrete specimens with varying proportions of sugarcane bagasse ash (BA), as a partial replacement of cement, were prepared, and the developed models were validated by utilizing the results obtained from the tested BAC. Different statistical tests evaluated the accurateness of the models, and the results were cross-validated employing a k-fold algorithm. The modeling results achieve correlation coefficient (R) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) above 0.8 each with relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) and objective function (OF) less than 10 and 0.2, respectively. The MEP model leads in providing reliable mathematical expression for the estimation of fc', fSTS and fFS of BA concrete, which can reduce the experimental workload in assessing the strength properties. The study's findings indicated that MEP-based modeling integrated with experimental testing of BA concrete and further cross-validation is effective in predicting the strength parameters of BA concrete.

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Topics: Types of concrete (52%), Compressive strength (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/POLYM13162750
16 Aug 2021-Polymers
Abstract: Although free-cement-based alkali-activated paste, mortar, and concrete have been recognised as sustainable and environmental-friendly materials, a considerable amount of effort is still being channeled to ascertain the best binary or ternary binders that would satisfy the requirements of strength and durability as well as environmental aspects. In this study, the mechanical properties of alkali-activated mortar (AAM) made with binary binders, involving fly ash (FA) and granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) as well as bottle glass waste nano-silica powder (BGWNP), were opti-mised using both experimentally and optimisation modelling through three scenarios. In the first scenario, the addition of BGWNP varied from 5% to 20%, while FA and GBFS were kept constant (30:70). In the second and third scenarios, BGWNP (5–20%) was added as the partial replacement of FA and GBFS, separately. The results show that the combination of binary binders (FA and GBFS) and BGWNP increased AAM’s strength compared to that of the control mixture for all scenarios. In addition, the findings also demonstrated that the replacement of FA by BGWNP was the most significant, while the effect of GBFS replacement by BGWNP was less significant. In particular, the highest improvement in compressive strength was recorded when FA, GBFS, and BGWNP were 61.6%, 30%, and 8.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the results of ANOVA (p values 0.9, RAE < 0.1, RSE < 0.013, and RRSE < 0.116) confirmed that all the models were robust, reliable, and significant. Similarly, the data variation was found to be less than 5%, and the difference between the predicted R2 and adj. R2 was very small (<0.2), thus confirming that the proposed non-linear quadratic equations had the capability to predict for further observation. In conclusion, the use of BGWNP in AAM could act as a beneficial and sustainable strategy, not only to address environmental issues (e.g., landfill) but to also enhance strength properties.

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2 Citations


References
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74 results found


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICNN.1995.488968
06 Aug 2002-
Abstract: A concept for the optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is introduced. The evolution of several paradigms is outlined, and an implementation of one of the paradigms is discussed. Benchmark testing of the paradigm is described, and applications, including nonlinear function optimization and neural network training, are proposed. The relationships between particle swarm optimization and both artificial life and genetic algorithms are described.

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Topics: Multi-swarm optimization (77%), Metaheuristic (69%), Stochastic diffusion search (67%) ... read more

32,237 Citations


Open accessProceedings Article
Ron Kohavi1Institutions (1)
20 Aug 1995-
Abstract: We review accuracy estimation methods and compare the two most common methods crossvalidation and bootstrap. Recent experimental results on artificial data and theoretical re cults in restricted settings have shown that for selecting a good classifier from a set of classifiers (model selection), ten-fold cross-validation may be better than the more expensive leaveone-out cross-validation. We report on a largescale experiment--over half a million runs of C4.5 and a Naive-Bayes algorithm--to estimate the effects of different parameters on these algrithms on real-world datasets. For crossvalidation we vary the number of folds and whether the folds are stratified or not, for bootstrap, we vary the number of bootstrap samples. Our results indicate that for real-word datasets similar to ours, The best method to use for model selection is ten fold stratified cross validation even if computation power allows using more folds.

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Topics: Model selection (54%), Cross-validation (53%)

10,535 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1093-3263(01)00123-1
Abstract: Validation is a crucial aspect of any quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. This paper examines one of the most popular validation criteria, leave-one-out cross-validated R2 (LOO q2). Often, a high value of this statistical characteristic (q2 > 0.5) is considered as a proof of the high predictive ability of the model. In this paper, we show that this assumption is generally incorrect. In the case of 3D QSAR, the lack of the correlation between the high LOO q2 and the high predictive ability of a QSAR model has been established earlier [Pharm. Acta Helv. 70 (1995) 149; J. Chemomet. 10(1996)95; J. Med. Chem. 41 (1998) 2553]. In this paper, we use two-dimensional (2D) molecular descriptors and k nearest neighbors (kNN) QSAR method for the analysis of several datasets. No correlation between the values of q2 for the training set and predictive ability for the test set was found for any of the datasets. Thus, the high value of LOO q2 appears to be the necessary but not the sufficient condition for the model to have a high predictive power. We argue that this is the general property of QSAR models developed using LOO cross-validation. We emphasize that the external validation is the only way to establish a reliable QSAR model. We formulate a set of criteria for evaluation of predictive ability of QSAR models.

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Topics: Applicability domain (63%)

2,881 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/QSAR.200710043
Abstract: This paper tries to explore the optimum variable selection strategy for Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression using a model dataset of cytoprotection data. The compounds of the dataset were classified using K-means clustering technique applied on standardized descriptor matrix and ten combinations of training and test sets were generated based on the obtained clusters. For a particular training set, PLS models were developed with a number of components optimized by leave-one-out Q2 and then the developed models were validated (externally) using the test set compounds. For each set, PLS model was initially constructed using all descriptors (variables). The variables having least standardized values of regression coefficients were deleted and the next model was developed with a reduced set of variables. These steps were performed several times until further reduction in number of variables did not improve Q2 value. In each case, statistical parameters like predictive R2 (R2pred), squared correlation coefficient between observed and predicted values with (r2) and without () intercept and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) were calculated from the test set compounds. In case of all ten sets, Q2 values steadily increase on deletion of variables while R2pred values do not show any specific trend. In no case, the highest Q2 and highest R2pred appear in the same trial, i.e., with the same combinations of variables. This suggests that from the viewpoint of external predictability, choice of variables for PLS based on Q2 value may not be optimum. Moreover, a clear separation of r2 and r02 curves in some sets suggests that such models may not be truly predictive in spite of acceptable R2pred values. Another observation is that coefficient of determination R2 for the training set is more immune to changes on deletion of variables than the validation parameters like Q2 and R2pred. Finally, a new parameter rm2 has been suggested to indicate external predictability of QSAR models.

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616 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEMCONCOMP.2007.03.001
K. Ganesan1, K. Rajagopal1, K. ThangavelInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The utilization of waste materials in concrete manufacture provides a satisfactory solution to some of the environmental concerns and problems associated with waste management. Agro wastes such as rice husk ash, wheat straw ash, hazel nutshell and sugarcane bagasse ash are used as pozzolanic materials for the development of blended cements. Few studies have been reported on the use of bagasse ash (BA) as partial cement replacement material in respect of cement mortars. In this study, the effects of BA content as partial replacement of cement on physical and mechanical properties of hardened concrete are reported. The properties of concrete investigated include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, permeability characteristics, chloride diffusion and resistance to chloride ion penetration. The test results indicate that BA is an effective mineral admixture, with 20% as optimal replacement ratio of cement.

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Topics: Fly ash (63%), Pozzolan (58%), Cement (58%) ... read more

458 Citations