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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CBIC.202000711

Magnetic Resonance Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange of Selective PyFALGEA Oligopeptide Ligands Towards Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors.

02 Mar 2021-ChemBioChem (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 22, Iss: 5, pp 855-860
Abstract: The biorelevant PyFALGEA oligopeptide ligand, which is selective towards the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), has been successfully employed as a substrate in magnetic resonance signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) experiments. It is demonstrated that PyFALGEA and the iridium catalyst IMes form a PyFALGEA:IMes molecular complex. The interaction between PyFALGEA:IMes and H2 results in a ternary SABRE complex. Selective 1D EXSY experiments reveal that this complex is labile, which is an essential condition for successful hyperpolarization by SABRE. Polarization transfer from parahydrogen to PyFALGEA is observed leading to significant enhancement of the 1 H NMR signals of PyFALGEA. Different iridium catalysts and peptides are inspected to discuss the influence of their molecular structures on the efficiency of hyperpolarization. It is observed that PyFALGEA oligopeptide hyperpolarization is more efficient when an iridium catalyst with a sterically less demanding NHC ligand system such as IMesBn is employed. Experiments with shorter analogues of PyFALGEA, that is, PyLGEA and PyEA, show that the bulky phenylalanine from the PyFALGEA oligopeptide causes steric hindrance in the SABRE complex, which hampers hyperpolarization with IMes. Finally, a single-scan 1 H NMR SABRE experiment of PyFALGEA with IMesBn revealed a unique pattern of NMR lines in the hydride region, which can be treated as a fingerprint of this important oligopeptide.

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Topics: IMes (52%), Hyperpolarization (physics) (52%), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (51%) ... show more
Citations
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANGE.202100109
13 Aug 2021-Angewandte Chemie

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.202100109
26 Feb 2021-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has become a universal method for biochemical and biomedical studies, including metabolomics, proteomics, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By increasing the signal of selected molecules, the hyperpolarization of nuclear spin has expanded the reach of NMR and MRI even further (e.g. hyperpolarized solid-state NMR and metabolic imaging in vivo). Parahydrogen (pH2 ) offers a fast and cost-efficient way to achieve hyperpolarization, and the last decade has seen extensive advances, including the synthesis of new tracers, catalysts, and transfer methods. The portfolio of hyperpolarized molecules now includes amino acids, which are of great interest for many applications. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature and developments in the hyperpolarization of amino acids and peptides.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00723-021-01371-W
Laura Wienands1, Franziska Theiß1, James Eills2, Lorenz Rösler1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Parahydrogen-induced polarization is a hyperpolarization method for enhancing nuclear magnetic resonance signals by chemical reactions/interactions involving the para spin isomer of hydrogen gas. This method has allowed for biomolecules to be hyperpolarized to such a level that they can be used for real time in vivo metabolic imaging. One particularly promising example is fumarate, which can be rapidly and efficiently hyperpolarized at low cost by hydrogenating an acetylene dicarboxylate precursor molecule using parahydrogen. The reaction is relatively slow compared to the timescale on which the hyperpolarization relaxes back to thermal equilibrium, and an undesirable 2nd hydrogenation step can convert the fumarate into succinate. To date, the hydrogenation chemistry has not been thoroughly investigated, so previous work has been inconsistent in the chosen reaction conditions in the search for ever-higher reaction rate and yield. In this work we investigate the solution preparation protocols and the reaction conditions on the rate and yield of fumarate formation. We report conditions to reproducibly yield over 100 mM fumarate on a short timescale, and discuss aspects of the protocol that hinder the formation of fumarate or lead to irreproducible results. We also provide experimental procedures and recommendations for performing reproducible kinetics experiments in which hydrogen gas is repeatedly bubbled into an aqueous solution, overcoming challenges related to the viscosity and surface tension of the water.

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Topics: Hyperpolarization (physics) (56%), Reaction rate (54%), Yield (chemistry) (52%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.202109588
17 Sep 2021-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: The scope of non-hydrogenative parahydrogen hyperpolarization (nhPHIP) techniques has been expanding over the last years, with the continuous addition of important classes of substrates. For example, pyruvate can now be hyperpolarized using the Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) technique, offering a fast, efficient and low-cost PHIP alternative to Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for metabolic imaging studies. Still, important biomolecules such as amino acids have so far resisted PHIP, unless properly functionalized. Here, we report on an approach to nhPHIP for unmodified α-amino acids that allows their detection and quantification in complex mixtures at sub-micromolar concentrations. This method was tested on human urine, in which natural α-amino acids could be measured after dilution with methanol without any additional sample treatment.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CHEM.202102800
Adam Mames1, Mariusz Pietrzak1, Piotr Bernatowicz1, Adam Kubas1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHC) are widely utilized in catalysis and material science. They are characterized by their steric and electronic properties. Steric properties are usually quantified on the basis of their static structure, which can be determined by X-ray diffraction. The electronic properties are estimated in the liquid state; for example, via the 77 Se liquid state NMR of Se-NHC adducts. We demonstrate that 77 Se NMR crystallography can contribute to the characterization of the structural and electronic properties of NHC in solid and liquid states. Selected Se-NHC adducts are investigated via 77 Se solid state NMR and X-ray crystallography, supported by quantum chemical calculations. This investigation reveals a correlation between the molecular structure of adducts and NMR parameters, including not only isotropic chemical shifts but also the other chemical shift tensor components. Afterwards, the liquid state 77 Se NMR data is presented and interpreted in terms of the quantum chemistry modelling. The discrepancy between the structural and electronic properties, and in particular the π-accepting abilities of adducts in the solid and liquid states is discussed. Finally, the 13 C isotropic chemical shift from the liquid state NMR and the 13 C tensor components are also discussed, and compared with their 77 Se counterparts. 77 Se NMR crystallography can deliver valuable information about NHC ligands, and together with liquid state 77 Se NMR can provide an in-depth outlook on the properties of NHC ligands.

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References
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40 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JA00252A049
Abstract: The PASADENA effect is a method for transient high-sensitivity proton spin-labelling by molecular addition of dihydrogen. When the parahydrogen mole fraction differs from the high-temperature limit of 1/4, this population difference constitutes a form of spin order which can be converted to magnetization observable by NMR. Large NMR signals are observed, if subsequent to the hydrogen addition, the two protons experience magnetic inequivalence and spin-spin coupling and if observation is made before spin-lattice relaxation restores the equilibrium spin order. The analogous effect for D2 is also possible. The kinetic mechanisms of the homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts which permit the realization of the PASADENA effect have been the target of the experimental applications. The enhancement of the NMR transitions has facilitated the determination of true molecular rate constants. Ordinarily, the activity of a catalyst is assessed by dividing the observed rate by the total catalyst concentration. However, the question as to whether most of the catalytic rate is due to a tiny fraction of active species or a large fraction with a relatively low molecular rate is not clearly addressed by such an analysis. This ambiguity is entirely avoided in the PASADENA studies, since only active catalyst molecules can contribute to the enhanced signals from which all kinetic inferences are made. The sensitivity enhancement has also led to the identification of a novel intermediate in the mechanism for the Rh(DIPHOS)+ catalyzed hydrogenation of styrene. The rate of conversion of this species into product and starting material has been studied using two-dimensional NMR. The dramatically improved sensitivity should make it possible to observe key catalytic intermediates which do not build up in sufficient quantity to allow detection by conventional NMR arising from Curie-Law magnetization. The study of surface sites which bind pairwise with H2 is also a potentially fruitful area for future experimental work. The ambient temperature NMR spectroscopy of surfaces is not often feasible due to sensitivity limitations. Simulations have been performed using typical shift and coupling parameters in an effort to characterize the enhanced lineshapes which can be expected. The inverse of the PASADENA effect has also been proposed, whereby the spin order of a molecule containing hydrogen is probed by measuring the branching ratio to ortho and para dihydrogen. This RAYMOND phenomenon (radiowave application yields modulated ortho number desorbed) has the potential for measuring precursor NMR with extraordinary sensitivity, since it finesses the need for detection of radiowaves.

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Topics: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (56%), Spin isomers of hydrogen (55%), Population (53%) ... show more

684 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.57.2645
Abstract: A method of obtaining very large nuclear-spin polarizations is proposed and illustrated by density-operator calculations. The prediction is that chemical reaction and rf irradiation can convert the scalar parahydrogen state into polarization of order unity on the nuclear spins of the products of molecular-hydrogen addition reactions. A means of extending the resultant sensitivity enhancement to other spins is proposed in which the transfer of order occurs through population differences not associated with magnetization.

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Topics: Spin polarization (56%), Spins (55%), Magnetization (55%) ... show more

622 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1168877
27 Mar 2009-Science
Abstract: The sensitivity of both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging is very low because the detected signal strength depends on the small population difference between spin states even in high magnetic fields. Hyperpolarization methods can be used to increase this difference and thereby enhance signal strength. This has been achieved previously by incorporating the molecular spin singlet para-hydrogen into hydrogenation reaction products. We show here that a metal complex can facilitate the reversible interaction of para-hydrogen with a suitable organic substrate such that up to an 800-fold increase in proton, carbon, and nitrogen signal strengths are seen for the substrate without its hydrogenation. These polarized signals can be selectively detected when combined with methods that suppress background signals.

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617 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 1991-
Abstract: The PASADENA effect is a method for transient high-sensitivity proton spin-labelling by molecular addition of dihydrogen. When the parahydrogen mole fraction differs from the high-temperature limit of 1/4, this population difference constitutes a form of spin order which can be converted to magnetization observable by NMR. Large NMR signals are observed, if subsequent to the hydrogen addition, the two protons experience magnetic inequivalence and spin-spin coupling and if observation is made before spin-lattice relaxation restores the equilibrium spin order. The analogous effect for D2 is also possible. The kinetic mechanisms of the homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts which permit the realization of the PASADENA effect have been the target of the experimental applications. The enhancement of the NMR transitions has facilitated the determination of true molecular rate constants. Ordinarily, the activity of a catalyst is assessed by dividing the observed rate by the total catalyst concentration. However, the question as to whether most of the catalytic rate is due to a tiny fraction of active species or a large fraction with a relatively low molecular rate is not clearly addressed by such an analysis. This ambiguity is entirely avoided in the PASADENA studies, since only active catalyst molecules can contribute to the enhanced signals from which all kinetic inferences are made. The sensitivity enhancement has also led to the identification of a novel intermediate in the mechanism for the Rh(DIPHOS)+ catalyzed hydrogenation of styrene. The rate of conversion of this species into product and starting material has been studied using two-dimensional NMR. The dramatically improved sensitivity should make it possible to observe key catalytic intermediates which do not build up in sufficient quantity to allow detection by conventional NMR arising from Curie-Law magnetization. The study of surface sites which bind pairwise with H2 is also a potentially fruitful area for future experimental work. The ambient temperature NMR spectroscopy of surfaces is not often feasible due to sensitivity limitations. Simulations have been performed using typical shift and coupling parameters in an effort to characterize the enhanced lineshapes which can be expected. The inverse of the PASADENA effect has also been proposed, whereby the spin order of a molecule containing hydrogen is probed by measuring the branching ratio to ortho and para dihydrogen. This RAYMOND phenomenon (radiowave application yields modulated ortho number desorbed) has the potential for measuring precursor NMR with extraordinary sensitivity, since it finesses the need for detection of radiowaves.

... read more

596 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JA00260A026
Abstract: Hydrogenation de composes acetyleniques ou ethyleniques en presence de complexes de rhodium carbonyle ou de palladium

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Topics: Catalysis (53%)

368 Citations