scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena

01 Nov 1999-IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (IEEE)-Vol. 47, Iss: 11, pp 2075-2084

Abstract: We show that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu//sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials, including large imaginary components of /spl mu//sub eff/. The microstructure is on a scale much less than the wavelength of radiation, is not resolved by incident microwaves, and uses a very low density of metal so that structures can be extremely lightweight. Most of the structures are resonant due to internal capacitance and inductance, and resonant enhancement combined with compression of electrical energy into a very small volume greatly enhances the energy density at critical locations in the structure, easily by factors of a million and possibly by much more. Weakly nonlinear materials placed at these critical locations will show greatly enhanced effects raising the possibility of manufacturing active structures whose properties can be switched at will between many states.
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Apr 2001-Science
TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.
Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

7,922 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2006-Science
TL;DR: This work shows how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and proposes a design strategy that has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.
Abstract: Using the freedom of design that metamaterials provide, we show how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and propose a design strategy. The conserved fields-electric displacement field D, magnetic induction field B, and Poynting vector B-are all displaced in a consistent manner. A simple illustration is given of the cloaking of a proscribed volume of space to exclude completely all electromagnetic fields. Our work has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.

7,201 citations


Book
15 May 2007-
Abstract: Fundamentals of Plasmonics.- Electromagnetics of Metals.- Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Metal / Insulator Interfaces.- Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Planar Interfaces.- Imaging Surface Plasmon Polariton Propagation.- Localized Surface Plasmons.- Electromagnetic Surface Modes at Low Frequencies.- Applications.- Plasmon Waveguides.- Transmission of Radiation Through Apertures and Films.- Enhancement of Emissive Processes and Nonlinearities.- Spectroscopy and Sensing.- Metamaterials and Imaging with Surface Plasmon Polaritons.- Concluding Remarks.

6,467 citations


Cites background from "Magnetism from conductors and enhan..."

  • ...Pendry and co-workers have shown that a regular array of these structures, with both structure size and lattice constant of dimensions much smaller than the wavelength region of interest, can exhibit a magnetic response [Pendry et al., 1999]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
David Schurig1, Jack J. Mock1, B.J. Justice1, Steven A. Cummer1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
10 Nov 2006-Science
TL;DR: This work describes here the first practical realization of a cloak of invisibility, constructed with the use of artificially structured metamaterials, designed for operation over a band of microwave frequencies.
Abstract: A recently published theory has suggested that a cloak of invisibility is in principle possible, at least over a narrow frequency band. We describe here the first practical realization of such a cloak; in our demonstration, a copper cylinder was "hidden" inside a cloak constructed according to the previous theoretical prescription. The cloak was constructed with the use of artificially structured metamaterials, designed for operation over a band of microwave frequencies. The cloak decreased scattering from the hidden object while at the same time reducing its shadow, so that the cloak and object combined began to resemble empty space.

6,229 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Nathan Ingle Landy1, Soji Sajuyigbe2, Jack J. Mock2, David R. Smith2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This work fabricate, characterize, and analyze a MM absorber with a slightly lower predicted A(omega) of 96%.
Abstract: We present the design for an absorbing metamaterial (MM) with near unity absorbance A(omega). Our structure consists of two MM resonators that couple separately to electric and magnetic fields so as to absorb all incident radiation within a single unit cell layer. We fabricate, characterize, and analyze a MM absorber with a slightly lower predicted A(omega) of 96%. Unlike conventional absorbers, our MM consists solely of metallic elements. The substrate can therefore be optimized for other parameters of interest. We experimentally demonstrate a peak A(omega) greater than 88% at 11.5 GHz.

4,447 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Eli Yablonovitch1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: If a three-dimensionally periodic dielectric structure has an electromagnetic band gap which overlaps the electronic band edge, then spontaneous emission can be rigorously forbidden.
Abstract: It has been recognized for some time that the spontaneous emission by atoms is not necessarily a fixed and immutable property of the coupling between matter and space, but that it can be controlled by modification of the properties of the radiation field. This is equally true in the solid state, where spontaneous emission plays a fundamental role in limiting the performance of semiconductor lasers, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells. If a three-dimensionally periodic dielectric structure has an electromagnetic band gap which overlaps the electronic band edge, then spontaneous emission can be rigorously forbidden.

12,133 citations


"Magnetism from conductors and enhan..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In fact, metallic structures in general represent a fresh approach to the photonic insulator concept introduced independently by Yablonovitch [8], [9] and John [10]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Sajeev John1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A new mechanism for strong Anderson localization of photons in carefully prepared disordered dielectric superlattices with an everywhere real positive dielectrics constant is described.
Abstract: A new mechanism for strong Anderson localization of photons in carefully prepared disordered dielectric superlattices with an everywhere real positive dielectric constant is described. In three dimensions, two photon mobility edges separate high- and low-frequency extended states from an intermediate-frequency pseudogap of localized states arising from remnant geometric Bragg resonances. Experimentally observable consequences are discussed.

8,552 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mechanism for depression of the plasma frequency into the far infrared or even GHz band is proposed: Periodic structures built of very thin wires dilute the average concentration of electrons and considerably enhance the effective electron mass through self-inductance.
Abstract: The plasmon is a well established collective excitation of metals in the visible and near UV, but at much lower frequencies dissipation destroys all trace of the plasmon and typical Drude behavior sets in. We propose a mechanism for depression of the plasma frequency into the far infrared or even GHz band: Periodic structures built of very thin wires dilute the average concentration of electrons and considerably enhance the effective electron mass through self-inductance. Computations replicate the key features and confirm our analytic theory. The new structure has novel properties not observed before in the GHz band, including some possible impact on superconducting properties.

3,690 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
R. H. Ritchie1Institutions (1)
01 Jun 1957-Physical Review
Abstract: The angle-energy distribution of a fast electron losing energy to the conduction electrons in a thick metallic foil has been derived assuming that the conduction electrons constitute a Fermi-Dirac gas and that the fast electron undergoes only small fractional energy and momentum changes. This distribution exhibits both collective interaction characteristics and individual interaction characteristics, and is more general than the result obtained by other workers. Describing the conduction electrons by the hydro-dynamical equations of Bloch, it has been shown that for very thin idealized foils energy loss may occur at a value which is less than the plasma energy, while as the foil thickness decreases below $\ensuremath{\sim}\frac{v}{{\ensuremath{\omega}}_{p}}$ the loss at the plasma energy becomes less than that predicted by more conventional theories. The net result is an increase in the energy loss per unit thickness as the foil thickness is decreased. It is suggested that the predicted loss at subplasma energies may correspond to some of the low-lying energy losses which have been observed by experimenters using thin foils.

2,465 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A photonic structure consisting of an extended 3D network of thin wires is shown to behave like a low density plasma of very heavy charged particles with a plasma frequency in the GHz range. We show that the analogy with metallic behaviour in the visible is rather complete, and the picture is confirmed by three independent investigations: analytic theory, computer simulation and experiments on a model structure. The fact that the wires are thin is crucial to the validity of the picture. This new composite dielectric, which has the property of negative below the plasma frequency, opens new possibilities for GHz devices.

1,320 citations


"Magnetism from conductors and enhan..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...Theoretical analysis of this structure has been confirmed by experiment [2]....

    [...]

  • ...Note that there is a symmetry between, on the one hand, the present structures designed to generate a magnetic permeability and within which we find enhanced electrostatic fields and, on the other hand, the earlier thin-wire structures [1], [2] designed to generate a negative electrical permittivity, and within which we find enhanced magnetic fields....

    [...]


Network Information
Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202214
2021274
2020337
2019365
2018370
2017421