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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110111

Major Depressive Disorder and gut microbiota – Association not causation. A scoping review

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110111
Abstract: One very promising hypothesis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) pathogenesis is the gut-brain axis (GBA) dysfunction, which can lead to subclinical inflammation, hypothalamic–pituitary (HPA) axis dysregulation, and altered neural, metabolic and endocrine pathways. One of the most important parts of GBA is gut microbiota, which was shown to regulate different functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this scoping review was to present the current state of research on the relationship between MDD and gut microbiota and extract causal relationships. Further, we presented the relationship between the use of probiotics and antidepressants, and the microbiota changes. We evaluated the data from 27 studies aimed to investigate microbial fingerprints associated with depression phenotype. We abstracted data from 16 and 11 observational and clinical studies, respectively; the latter was divided into trials evaluating the effects of psychiatric treatment (n = 3) and probiotic intervention (n = 9) on the microbiome composition and function. In total, the data of 1187 individuals from observational studies were assessed. In clinical studies, there were 490 individuals analysed. In probiotic studies, 220 and 218 patients with MDD received the intervention and non-active study comparator, respectively. It was concluded that in MDD, the microbiota is altered. Although the mechanism of this relationship is unknown, we hypothesise that the taxonomic changes observed in patients with MDD are associated with bacterial proinflammatory activity, reduced Schort Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) production, impaired intestinal barrier integrity and neurotransmitter production, impaired carbohydrates, tryptophane and glutamate metabolic pathways. However, only in few publications this effect was confirmed by metagenomic, metabolomic analysis, or by assessment of immunological parameters or intestinal permeability markers. Future research requires standardisation process starting from patient selection, material collection, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. We did not observe whether antidepressive medications influence on gut microbiota, but the use of psychobiotics in patients with MDD has great prospects; however, this procedure requires also standardisation and thorough mechanistic research. The microbiota should be treated as an environmental element, which considers the aetiopathogenesis of the disease and provides new possibilities for monitoring and treating patients with MDD.

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Topics: Gut flora (55%), Microbiome (51%)
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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU12113369
01 Nov 2020-Nutrients
Abstract: The gut microbiota have gained much scientific attention recently. Apart from unravelling the taxonomic data, we should understand how the altered microbiota structure corresponds to functions of this complex ecosystem. The metabolites of intestinal microorganisms, especially bacteria, exert pleiotropic effects on the human organism and contribute to the host systemic balance. These molecules play key roles in regulating immune and metabolic processes. A subset of them affect the gut brain axis signaling and balance the mental wellbeing. Neurotransmitters, short chain fatty acids, tryptophan catabolites, bile acids and phosphatidylcholine, choline, serotonin, and L-carnitine metabolites possess high neuroactive potential. A scoping literature search in PubMed/Embase was conducted up until 20 June 2020, using three major search terms "microbiota metabolites" AND "gut brain axis" AND "mental health". This review aimed to enhance our knowledge regarding the gut microbiota functional capacity, and support current and future attempts to create new compounds for future clinical interventions.

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Topics: Gut flora (58%), Gut–brain axis (57%), Microbiome (52%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13041059
24 Mar 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: In order to determine whether Taiwanese vegetarian diets reduce the risks of depression, we analyzed data from the Tzu Chi Vegetarian Study (TCVS), which is a prospective cohort study following 12,062 participants from the Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation of Taiwan since 2005. The cohort was prospectively followed by linking to the National Health Institute Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan and hazard ratios of depression between vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression. We assessed dietary intake using a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident depression was ascertained through linkage to NHIRD which had claim records with the International Classification of Diseases, and a total of 3571 vegetarians and 7006 non-vegetarians were included in this analysis. Compared with non-vegetarians, the vegetarian group had a lower incidence of depressive disorders (2.37 vs. 3.21 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 0.70; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.52-0.93). Thus, Taiwanese vegetarians had a lower risk of developing subsequent depressive disorders compared with non-vegetarians. This indicated that diet may be an important measure for the prevention of depression. However, to generalize to the global population requires further study.

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Topics: Hazard ratio (52%), Cohort (51%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0004867421998795
Abstract: Background:Depression is a severe, chronic, and recurring mental health disorder, which prevalence and morbimortality have increased in recent years. Several theories are proposed to elucidate the ...

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Topics: Antidepressant (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYT.2021.645045
Qi Zhang1, Yajun Yun1, Huimei An1, W.J. Zhao1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and related subclinical symptoms. However, studies on the gut microbiota in MDD are inconsistent, and data on MDD's effects on sleep are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the gut microbiota composition and sleep quality of patients with MDD. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples from 36 patients with MDD and 45 healthy controls (HC). Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, depressive severity with the Hamilton Depression Scale, and insomnia severity using the Insomnia Severity Index. Forty-eight microbiota targets showed significant differences between MDD and HC. In MDD, six microbiota targets were associated with the severity of depression, 11 with sleep quality, and 3 with sleep severity. At the genus level, Dorea was simultaneously related to depression and sleep quality, while Intestinibacter was more closely related to sleep problems. Coprococcus and Intestinibacter were associated with sleep quality independent of the severity of depression. In conclusion, the present findings enable a better understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and MDD-related symptoms. Gut microbiota alterations may become potential biomarkers and/or treatment targets for sleep quality in MDD.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ENDOCRINES2030022
01 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Psychoneuroendocrineimmunology (PNEI) brings together knowledge acquired since the 1930s from endocrinology, immunology, neuroscience, and psychology. With PNEI, a model of research and interpretation of health and disease is emerging, which sees the human body as a structured and interconnected unit, where the psychological and biological systems are mutually coordinated. In the PNEI view, many factors could influence mental health, with the endocrine system involved in mediating the effects of environmental stress on mental health and inflammation in the onset and course of psychiatric disorders as a result of individual and collective conditions and behaviors. Among these, nutrition is one way by which the environment impacts physiology: indeed, many pieces of research showed that several elements (e.g., probiotics, fish oil, zinc) have a positive effect on mental disorders thus being potentially augmentation agents in treatment. Still, physical activity can moderate depressive symptoms, while prolonged stress increases the risk of psychopathology. Taken together, the PNEI-based approach may inform prevention and treatment strategies, also in the field of mental health care.

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Topics: Mental health (60%), Psychopathology (55%), Stress management (53%) ... read more

1 Citations


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160 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE08821
Junjie Qin1, Ruiqiang Li1, Jeroen Raes2, Manimozhiyan Arumugam  +49 moreInstitutions (5)
04 Mar 2010-Nature
Abstract: To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, ~150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively

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Topics: Metagenomics (60%), Bacterial genome size (53%), Genomics (52%) ... read more

7,873 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11234
Curtis Huttenhower1, Curtis Huttenhower2, Dirk Gevers1, Rob Knight3  +250 moreInstitutions (42)
14 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: The Human Microbiome Project Consortium reports the first results of their analysis of microbial communities from distinct, clinically relevant body habitats in a human cohort; the insights into the microbial communities of a healthy population lay foundations for future exploration of the epidemiology, ecology and translational applications of the human microbiome.

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Topics: Human Microbiome Project (72%), Oral Microbiome (65%), Microbiome (64%) ... read more

6,805 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
01 Jun 2012-PubMed Central
Abstract: Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analysed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats so far. We found the diversity and abundance of each habitat’s signature microbes to vary widely even among healthy subjects, with strong niche specialization both within and among individuals. The project encountered an estimated 81–99% of the genera, enzyme families and community configurations occupied by the healthy Western microbiome. Metagenomic carriage of metabolic pathways was stable among individuals despite variation in community structure, and ethnic/racial background proved to be one of the strongest associations of both pathways and microbes with clinical metadata. These results thus delineate the range of structural and functional configurations normal in the microbial communities of a healthy population, enabling future characterization of the epidemiology, ecology and translational applications of the human microbiome.

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Topics: Human microbiome (60%)

6,350 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11053
Tanya Yatsunenko1, Federico E. Rey1, Mark J. Manary1, Mark J. Manary2  +19 moreInstitutions (7)
14 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

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Topics: Microbiome (59%), Human microbiome (56%), Enterotype (55%) ... read more

4,955 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRN2297
Abstract: In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour. When activation of the peripheral immune system continues unabated, such as during systemic infections, cancer or autoimmune diseases, the ensuing immune signalling to the brain can lead to an exacerbation of sickness and the development of symptoms of depression in vulnerable individuals. These phenomena might account for the increased prevalence of clinical depression in physically ill people. Inflammation is therefore an important biological event that might increase the risk of major depressive episodes, much like the more traditional psychosocial factors.

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Topics: Sickness behavior (61%), Immune system (52%), Innate immune system (51%) ... read more

4,937 Citations