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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELREP.2021.108790

Major role of IgM in the neutralizing activity of convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2.

02 Mar 2021-Cell Reports (Elsevier)-Vol. 34, Iss: 9, pp 108790-108790
Abstract: Characterization of the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, is essential to help control the infection. The neutralization activity of plasma from patients with COVID-19 decreases rapidly during the first weeks after recovery. However, the specific role of each immunoglobulin isotype in the overall neutralizing capacity is still not well understood. In this study, we select plasma from a cohort of convalescent patients with COVID-19 and selectively deplete immunoglobulin A, M, or G before testing the remaining neutralizing capacity of the depleted plasma. We find that depletion of immunoglobulin M is associated with the most substantial loss of virus neutralization, followed by immunoglobulin G. This observation may help design efficient antibody-based COVID-19 therapies and may also explain the increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 of autoimmune patients receiving therapies that impair the production of immunoglobulin M (IgM).

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Topics: Immunoglobulin M (60%), Immunoglobulin G (60%), Immunoglobulin A (56%) ... show more
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36 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21444-5
Adam K. Wheatley1, Jennifer A Juno1, Jing J. Wang2, Kevin J. Selva1  +25 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: The durability of infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity has major implications for reinfection and vaccine development. Here, we show a comprehensive profile of antibody, B cell and T cell dynamics over time in a cohort of patients who have recovered from mild-moderate COVID-19. Binding and neutralising antibody responses, together with individual serum clonotypes, decay over the first 4 months post-infection. A similar decline in Spike-specific CD4+ and circulating T follicular helper frequencies occurs. By contrast, S-specific IgG+ memory B cells consistently accumulate over time, eventually comprising a substantial fraction of circulating the memory B cell pool. Modelling of the concomitant immune kinetics predicts maintenance of serological neutralising activity above a titre of 1:40 in 50% of convalescent participants to 74 days, although there is probably additive protection from B cell and T cell immunity. This study indicates that SARS-CoV-2 immunity after infection might be transiently protective at a population level. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might require greater immunogenicity and durability than natural infection to drive long-term protection.

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Topics: Immune system (57%), T cell (57%), B cell (57%) ... show more

94 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19420862.2020.1854149
Marco Tuccori1, S Ferraro1, I Convertino1, E Cappello1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Dec 2020-mAbs
Abstract: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been previously exploited for viral infections, such as respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia and Ebolavirus disease. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, early signals of efficacy from convalescent plasma therapy have encouraged research and development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs. While many candidates are in preclinical development, we focus here on anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs (or mAb cocktails) that represent the late-stage clinical pipeline, i.e., those currently in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials. We describe the structure, mechanism of action, and ongoing trials for VIR-7831, LY-CoV555, LY-CoV016, BGB-DXP593, REGN-COV2, and CT-P59. We speculate also on the next generation of these mAbs.

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56 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.XCRM.2021.100290
05 May 2021-
Abstract: With the recent approval of highly effective COVID-19 vaccines, functional and lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is currently under investigation as antibody levels in plasma were shown to decline during convalescence. Since the absence of antibodies does not equate to absence of immune memory, we evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B cells in convalescent individuals. Here we report a longitudinal assessment of humoral immune responses on 32 donors up to 8 months post-symptom onset. Our observations indicate that anti-Spike and anti-RBD IgM in plasma decay rapidly, whereas the reduction of IgG is less prominent. Neutralizing activity also declines rapidly when compared to Fc-effector functions. Concomitantly, the frequencies of RBD-specific IgM+ B cells wane significantly when compared to RBD-specific IgG+ B cells which remain stable. Our results add to the current understanding of immune memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is critical for the prevention of secondary infections and vaccine efficacy.

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Topics: Immune system (56%), Antibody (55%), Humoral immunity (54%) ... show more

54 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHOM.2021.06.001
Alexandra Tauzin1, Manon Nayrac1, Mehdi Benlarbi, Shang Yu Gong2  +33 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: While the standard regimen of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 includes two doses administered 3 weeks apart, some public health authorities are spacing these doses, raising concerns about efficacy. However, data indicate that a single dose can be up to 90% effective starting 14 days post-administration. To assess the mechanisms contributing to protection, we analyzed humoral and T cell responses three weeks after a single BNT162b2 dose. We observed weak neutralizing activity elicited in SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals but strong anti-receptor binding domain and spike antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions and cellular CD4+ T cell responses. In previously infected individuals, a single dose boosted all humoral and T cell responses, with strong correlations between T helper and antibody immunity. Our results highlight the potential role of Fc-mediated effector functions and T cell responses in vaccine efficacy. They also provide support for spacing doses to vaccinate more individuals in conditions of vaccine scarcity.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (55%), Vaccination (51%), Immunity (50%)

35 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.03.18.435972
Alexandra Tauzin1, Manon Nayrac1, Mehdi Benlarbi, Shang Yu Gong2  +33 moreInstitutions (5)
18 Mar 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The standard dosing of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine validated in clinical trials includes two doses administered three weeks apart. While the decision by some public health authorities to space the doses because of limiting supply has raised concerns about vaccine efficacy, data indicate that a single dose is up to 90% effective starting 14 days after its administration. We analyzed humoral and T cells responses three weeks after a single dose of this mRNA vaccine. Despite the proven efficacy of the vaccine at this time point, no neutralizing activity were elicited in SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals. However, we detected strong anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) and Spike antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions and cellular responses dominated by the CD4 + T cell component. A single dose of this mRNA vaccine to individuals previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 boosted all humoral and T cell responses measured, with strong correlations between T helper and antibody immunity. Neutralizing responses were increased in both potency and breadth, with distinctive capacity to neutralize emerging variant strains. Our results highlight the importance of vaccinating uninfected and previously-infected individuals and shed new light into the potential role of Fc-mediated effector functions and T cell responses in vaccine efficacy. They also provide support to spacing the doses of two-vaccine regimens to vaccinate a larger pool of the population in the context of vaccine scarcity against SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (62%), T cell (55%), Immunity (53%) ... show more

25 Citations


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29 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.052
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

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Topics: Proteases (52%)

10,193 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-020-0965-6
Quanxin Long1, Xiaojun Tang2, Qiu Lin Shi2, Qin Li3  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Jun 2020-Nature Medicine
Abstract: The clinical features and immune responses of asymptomatic individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been well described We studied 37 asymptomatic individuals in the Wanzhou District who were diagnosed with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections but without any relevant clinical symptoms in the preceding 14 d and during hospitalization Asymptomatic individuals were admitted to the government-designated Wanzhou People's Hospital for centralized isolation in accordance with policy1 The median duration of viral shedding in the asymptomatic group was 19 d (interquartile range (IQR), 15-26 d) The asymptomatic group had a significantly longer duration of viral shedding than the symptomatic group (log-rank P = 0028) The virus-specific IgG levels in the asymptomatic group (median S/CO, 34; IQR, 16-107) were significantly lower (P = 0005) relative to the symptomatic group (median S/CO, 205; IQR, 58-382) in the acute phase Of asymptomatic individuals, 933% (28/30) and 811% (30/37) had reduction in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels, respectively, during the early convalescent phase, as compared to 968% (30/31) and 622% (23/37) of symptomatic patients Forty percent of asymptomatic individuals became seronegative and 129% of the symptomatic group became negative for IgG in the early convalescent phase In addition, asymptomatic individuals exhibited lower levels of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines These data suggest that asymptomatic individuals had a weaker immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection The reduction in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels in the early convalescent phase might have implications for immunity strategy and serological surveys

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Topics: Asymptomatic (64%), Interquartile range (51%)

1,854 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2456-9
18 Jun 2020-Nature
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21-5 Here we report on 149 COVID-19 convalescent individuals Plasmas collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres: less than 1:50 in 33% and below 1:1,000 in 79%, while only 1% showed titres above 1:5,000 Antibody sequencing revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies in different individuals Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as single digit nanograms per millitre Thus, most convalescent plasmas obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective

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Topics: Epitope (51%), Antibody (51%)

1,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABC5902
07 Aug 2020-Science
Abstract: The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a large impact on global health, travel, and economy. Therefore, preventative and therapeutic measures are urgently needed. Here, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from three convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using a SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike protein. These antibodies had low levels of somatic hypermutation and showed a strong enrichment in VH1-69, VH3-30-3, and VH1-24 gene usage. A subset of the antibodies was able to potently inhibit authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection at a concentration as low as 0.007 micrograms per milliliter. Competition and electron microscopy studies illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contains multiple distinct antigenic sites, including several receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes as well as non-RBD epitopes. In addition to providing guidance for vaccine design, the antibodies described here are promising candidates for COVID-19 treatment and prevention.

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Topics: Coronavirus (56%), Epitope (55%), Monoclonal antibody (55%)

701 Citations


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