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Journal Article

Managers and leaders: are they different?

01 May 2004-Clinical leadership & management review : the journal of CLMA (Clin Leadersh Manag Rev)-Vol. 18, Iss: 3, pp 171-177
TL;DR: It is argued that organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.
Abstract: The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion which drive corporate success. The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly--sometimes before they fully understand a problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study of managerial identity work is presented, based on an in-depth case of a senior manager and the organizational context in which she works, addressing the interplay between organizational discourses, role expectations, narrative self-identity and identity work.
Abstract: This is a case study of managerial identity work, based on an in-depth case of a senior manager and the organizational context in which she works. The article addresses the interplay between organizational discourses, role expectations, narrative self-identity and identity work. Identity is conceptualized in processual terms as identity work and struggle. The article illuminates fragmentation as well as integration in the interplay between organizational discourses and identity. It aims to contribute to a processual oriented identity theory and to the methodology of identity studies through showing the advantage of a multi-level intensive study.

1,412 citations


Cites background from "Managers and leaders: are they diff..."

  • ...It is now common to make distinctions between managers and leaders, in which the latter exercises the more ambitious, thrilling and positive tasks, making people feel inspired, committed and obey without feeling any negative power forcing them (e.g. Zaleznik, 1977)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a life-story approach to the development of authentic leaders is proposed, based on self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, selfconcordance, and person-role merger, and the extent to which the leader's selfconcept is expressed in his or her behavior.
Abstract: In this paper, we first develop the concepts of authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leader development. We suggest a definition of authentic leaders, which is based on the leader’s self-concept: his or her self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, self-concordance, and person-role merger, and on the extent to which the leader’s self-concept is expressed in his or her behavior. Following, we offer a life-story approach to the development of authentic leaders. We argue that authentic leadership rests heavily on the self-relevant meanings the leader attaches to his or her life experiences, and these meanings are captured in the leader’s life-story. We suggest that self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, and person-role merger are derived from the life-story. Therefore, the construction of a life-story is a major element in the development of authentic leaders. We further argue that the life-story provides followers with a major source of information on which to base their judgments about the leader’s authenticity. We conclude by drawing some practical implications from this approach and presenting suggestions for further research.

949 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is discovered that highly effective virtual team leaders act in a mentoring role and exhibit a high degree of understanding (empathy) toward other team members and are found to be extremely effective at providing regular, detailed, and prompt communication with their peers and in articulating role relationships (responsibilities) among the virtual team members.
Abstract: The trend toward physically dispersed work groups has necessitated a fresh inquiry into the role and nature of team leadership in virtual settings. To accomplish this, we assembled thirteen culturally diverse global teams from locations in Europe, Mexico, and the United States, assigning each team a project leader and task to complete. The findings suggest that effective team leaders demonstrate the capability to deal with paradox and contradiction by performing multiple leadership roles simultaneously (behavioral complexity). Specifically, we discovered that highly effective virtual team leaders act in a mentoring role and exhibit a high degree of understanding (empathy) toward other team members. At the same time, effective leaders are also able to assert their authority without being perceived as overbearing or inflexible. Finally, effective leaders are found to be extremely effective at providing regular, detailed, and prompt communication with their peers and in articulating role relationships (responsibilities) among the virtual team members. This study provides useful insights for managers interested in developing global virtual teams, as well as for academics interested in pursuing virtual team research.

729 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a conceptual framework is proposed that leaders' chronic self-regulatory focus (promotion versus prevention), in conjunction with their values, influences their motivation to lead and subsequently their leadership behavior.
Abstract: In this paper we integrate recent theories of motivation and leadership. Drawing on the self-regulatory focus theory and on self-concept based theories of leadership, we develop a conceptual framework proposing that leaders' chronic self-regulatory focus (promotion versus prevention), in conjunction with their values, influences their motivation to lead and, subsequently, their leadership behavior. We further suggest that leaders may influence the motivational self-regulatory foci of their followers, which will mediate different follower outcomes at the individual and group level.

721 citations


Cites background from "Managers and leaders: are they diff..."

  • ...In the controversy in the literature over how to distinguish managers from leaders, researchers suggest that management is stability oriented, whereas leadership is innovation oriented (e.g., Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Yukl, 1998; Zaleznik, 1977)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Keith Grint1
TL;DR: In this paper, an alternative model is developed that adapts the Tame and Wicked problem analysis of Rittell and Webber, in association with Etzioni's typology of compliance.
Abstract: The invasion of Iraq was premised upon accounts of the situation that have proved unsustainable, but that has not generated a change in the strategy of the coalition forces. Conventional contingency accounts of leadership suggest that accurate accounts of the context are a critical element of the decision-making apparatus but such accounts appear incapable of explaining the decisions of those engaged. An alternative model is developed that adapts the Tame and Wicked problem analysis of Rittell and Webber, in association with Etzioni’s typology of compliance, to propose an alternative analysis that is rooted in social constructivist approaches. This is then applied to three asymmetric case studies which suggest that decision-makers are much more active in the constitution of the context than conventional contingency theories allow, and that a persuasive rendition of the context then legitimizes a particular form of action that often relates to the decision-maker’s preferred mode of engagement, rather than ...

661 citations


Cites background from "Managers and leaders: are they diff..."

  • ...…distinguishes between Leadership and Management as different forms of authority – that is legitimate power in Weber’s conception – with leadership tending to embody longer time periods, a more strategic perspective, and a requirement to resolve novel problems (Bratton et al., 2004; Zaleznik, 1977)....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1964
TL;DR: The balance between centralized policy control and decentralized operational responsibility that made General Motors competitive in policy as well as in product was developed by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. and Irénée du Pont as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: When Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. joined General Motors in 1918, it was a sprawling, loosely organized company heading toward severe financial and management crises. Two years later, after the resignation of president and founder W.C. Durant, Mr. Sloan and Pierre S. and Irénée du Pont assumed management responsibility and began to develop the delicate balance between centralized policy control and decentralized operational responsibility that made General Motors competitive in policy as well as in product.

706 citations

Trending Questions (1)
Whats the difference between a disruptive leader and a manager

The article does not specifically mention the difference between a disruptive leader and a manager.